Nana Maternal’s dictum~”If you cannot say anything nice about someone~do come sit tight close by me, my dear~and whisper your confidences,”~altogether broke down on the death of Frank Roosevelt. On that day, Nana’s Social Day Book was completely blank.~Meanwhile, in Mummy’s Day Book was jotted simply~”Far, far better~far, far too late~than not at all, Amen.”

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Franklin D. RooseveltShare on Facebook

Born: January 30, 1882
Died: April 12, 1945 (age 63)
Nationality: American
Occupation: President
Bio: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades.~~

Read more at http://izquotes.com/quote/309866

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Nana Maternal’s dictum~”If you cannot say anything nice about someone~do come sit tight close by me, my dear~and whisper your confidences,”~altogether broke down on the death of Frank Roosevelt. On that day, Nana’s Social Day Book was completely blank.~Meanwhile, in Mummy’s Day Book was jotted simply~”Far, far better~far, far too late~than not at all, Amen.” 

No one of my family ever had the first kind word for Frank Roosevelt~~and I am not going to break that tradition at this advanced hour~~except to let Frank quote himself today~~on a number of subjects that American politicians might well carefully consider themselves~~

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Frank of foreign affaires~~

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Frank on indigenous policies and general outlooks~~to wit~~

~~Education~~

Franklin D. Roosevelt

~~Decent JOBS~~and all that other silly stuff related~~that everybody at Washington ignores and forgets about today~~

Honor, honesty and obligation~~Frank~~please~~we are modern sophisticates today at Washington~~silly child~~

Read more at http://izquotes.com/quote/309866

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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Thursday, 12th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
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Washington, DC 20016-2323533
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Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
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No one of my family ever had the first kind word for Frank Roosevelt~~and I am not going to break that tradition at this advanced hour~~except to let Frank quote himself today~~on a number of subjects that American politicians might well carefully consider themselves~~

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Silk Hat Boys~~

Franklin partying with
Anastasio Somoza in Washington, D.C., 
May 5, 1939. 
 

Good Neighbor Policy (1933-1945)

“In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor–the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others–the neighbor who respects his obligations and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a world of neighbors.”–Franklin Roosevelt, 1933

Click on pictures

Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza with President Franklin Roosevelt in Washington in 1939. Eleanor Roosevelt and Salvadora Somoza stand behind them. President Franklin Roosevelt with Nicaraguan
dictator Anastasio Somoza in Washington, D.C.,
May 5, 1939.

U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Rafael Trujillo, dictator
of the Dominican Republic, signing the Hull-Trujillo Treaty,
September 24, 1940.
First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
with the Trujillos, San Pedro de
Macoris, March 1934.

Cuban President Fulgencio Batista meeting 
Franklin Roosevelt.
Batista and Mrs.
Eleanor Roosevelt.

Batista and Roosevelt, 
December 1942
Batista and Roosevelt, 
December 1942

Batista and Cordell Hull at the Pan-American Union in December 1942 Batista and Cordell Hull at the Pan-American Union in December 1942

Franklin D. Roosevelt: The Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt (The White House)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt obituary
FDR’s Address before the Governing Board of the Pan American Union, April 12, 1933
FDR’s Address before the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, Buenos Aires, Argentina, December 1, 1936
FDR’s Address to the Governing Board of the Pan American Union, Washington, D. C., April 14, 1939
FDR’s Address by radio to the Eighth Pan American Scientific Congress, Washington, D. C., May 10,1940
Rio De Janeiro Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, January 15-28, 1942
FDR’s Good Neighbor Policy
Good Neighbor Policy The American Presidency
The Good Neighbor Policy

Cordell Hull – Biography

No one of my family ever had the first kind word for Frank Roosevelt~~and I am not going to break that tradition at this advanced hour~~except to let Frank quote himself today~~on a number of subjects that American politicians might well carefully consider themselves~~

Nana Maternal’s dictum~”If you cannot say anything nice about someone~do come sit tight close by me, my dear~and whisper your confidences,”~altogether broke down on the death of Frank Roosevelt. On that day, Nana’s Social Day Book was completely blank.~Meanwhile, in Mummy’s Day Book was jotted simply~”Far, far better~far, far too late~than not at all, Amen.”

DE-Globalize, America~DE-Globalize~and be doing it right away~

lehman-brothers-collapse

Mr. Krugman and Mr Reich, silly, lugubrious, Marxists~are, I must say, spot-on here as to their recitation of the history and causes of the American financial death spiral post-2008 Panica, but they are~predictably~spot-off as to solutions~which can only be attained by the DE-globalization of American productive capacity~the immediate result of which DE-globalization will be flooding America will good, permanent jobs~

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The past five years reflect “an immense failure of economic policy,” writes economist Paul Krugman in his New York Times column. And economic policies continue to fail, he stresses.

It’s been five years since Lehman Brothers collapsed. A second Great Depression was averted. “But, by any objective standard, U.S. economic policy since Lehman has been an astonishing, horrifying failure,” Krugman says.

Millions of discouraged Americans, he says, have probably dropped permanently out of the labor force, millions of young Americans have probably seen their lifetime career prospects permanently damaged, cuts in public investment have inflicted long-term damage on our infrastructure and our educational system.

The output gap – the difference between the value of goods and services produced and the potential value – is over $2 trillion.

“That’s trillions of dollars of pure waste, which we will never get back,” Krugman writes.

The percentage of adult Americans employed dropped from 63 percent to 59 percent and remains stuck there. Only a small part of that is due to an aging population. It’s mostly because of failed economic policy.

It certainly is not because of a “mass outbreak of laziness” of Americans “living high on food stamps and unemployment benefits,” he says, taking a swipe at right-wing claims.

If the U.S. government had postponed fiscal austerity and tax increases until the private sector recovered, the stimulus would have been about three times larger.

“Would such a policy have worked? All the evidence of the past five years says yes,” Krugman writes. “Government spending on job creation would, indeed, have created jobs.”

The Obama stimulus, while inadequate, stopped the economic plunge in 2009. By contrast, Europe’s spending cuts, what Krugman calls an “antistimulus,” prompted a severe contraction. That’s just what textbook economics predicted.

Such a spending program would have increased the federal debt by about an additional $1 trillion. The ratio of debt to GDP would be a few points higher, nothing that could conceivably cause a fiscal crisis. The nation would be richer and stronger and have a brighter future.

“And it’s not just the politicians who fell short: Many economists, instead of pointing the way toward a solution of the jobs crisis, became part of the problem, fueling exaggerated fears of inflation and debt.”

Krugman probably has been the most strident high-profile commentator advocating more government spending to decrease unemployment, but some other pundits agree with him.

“Right now the central challenge is to reignite the economy – getting jobs back, improving wages, and restoring growth,” wrote former Labor  Secretary Richard Reich on his blog. “Deficit reduction moves us in the opposite direction.”

The government must be “the spender of last resort” because consumer spending, representing the bulk of economic activity, has faltered, he argued.

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Mr. Krugman and Mr Reich, silly, lugubrious, Marxists~are, I must say, spot-on here as to their recitation of the history and causes of the American financial death spiral post-2008 Panica, but they are~predictably~spot-off as to solutions~which can only be attained by the DE-globalization of American productive capacity~the immediate result of which DE-globalization will be flooding America will good, permanent jobs~
article-2131277-066CD6F3000005DC-735_634x361

 Wave buh~bye-bye to the boss~~it’s our profit~~it’s his loss~~


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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Monday, 9th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
North West
Washington, DC 20016-2323533
USA
Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
Telefacsimile: 1-(202) 966-4125
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article-1055736-02AA335700000578-703_468x286

So Sorry, lads~~this particular phone call is BAD news~~

Despondent: Stunned workers emerging from the Lehman Brothers’ building in London after being told they are all out of a job~~

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1055736/Black-Monday-FTSE-plunges-212-points-global-markets-tumble-following-Lehman-collapse.html#ixzz2eRMGnJaj
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Mr. Krugman and Mr Reich, silly, lugubrious, Marxists~are, I must say, spot-on here as to their recitation of the history and causes of the American financial death spiral post-2008 Panica, but they are~predictably~spot-off as to solutions~which can only be attained by the DE-globalization of American productive capacity~the immediate result of which DE-globalization will be flooding America will good, permanent jobs~

 

Ronald Wilson Reagan~IN ONE WORD: Kindheartedness~

President_Reagan_and_Queen_Elizabeth_II_1982

President of the United States Ronald Reagan and Queen Elizabeth II Horseback Riding at Windsor CastleEngland. Reagan is riding Centennial and the Queen is on Burmese.

Author Michael Evans
Permission (Reusing this file) Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library

Ronald Wilson Reagan (/ˈrɒnəld ˈwɪlsən ˈrɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004)

IN ONE WORD:  Kindheartedness

Exposition~~

So many laudatory things have been written about President Reagan by others that I will simply say here that the character trait he best exemplified of which I made personal note of was his kindheartedness.

This attribute was best dramatized by his personal correspondence.  All Presidents write letters to American citizens who’ve written them for various reasons that are hand selected by staff for response.  Most are composed and auto-penned out at lowly clerical level and never seen by the President.

President Reagan took pains to write his notes personally, by hand and the subjects addressed were of many different kinds~~often very intimate and touching upon the long nights of the soul through which we are all destined to eventually go.

He cared for people and was fascinated by them~~on a personal, one-on-one basis. Often, he would put a bit of money in the envelope to a writer who was down on his luck~~designed to accompany his note of encouragement.

He was a gentleman~~in the purest sense of that term.  Sui Generis.  He broke the mold. The mold is broken.

He was a great leader to be sure~~but all that sort has been covered by others many times in other venues.  I remember what might strike the reader as a comparatively small matter~~I remember President Reagan’s kindheartedness.

That trait was twin brother to his boundless optimism and both were very real and visceral and they resonated with people directly, tangibly, personally.

He and I were of like mind that charity–caring for one’s fellow man~~is one’s personal responsibility~~not to be fobbed off on the government or the Church~~he believed as do I~~that caring for the sad, the poor, the misbegotten, is one’s personal responsibility and, in sharing that belief, he is a most fond memory.

 He was inspirational.  Simply. Inspirational.~~

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Reagan’s hope to revive patriotism was evident in his 1980 campaign materials.~~

What a remarkable idea~~reviving patriotism~~can you imagine any American politician today setting that as a national goal?  You don’t have to think very long about that~~now do ya?  The answer is NO.  Most unfortunately.~~

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image002 (20)


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Monday, 9th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
North West
Washington, DC 20016-2323533
USA
Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
Telefacsimile: 1-(202) 966-4125
Mobile Telephone: 1-(202) 557-1064


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In English boots and formal riding crop in hand while performing proper fence jumps, Reagan evoked the British rider. (Bill Ray/LIFE)~~

 Reagan at his Santa Ynez Mountain ranch, Rancho del Cielo~

A very well done article examining the quixotic, ever-alterable, modern Saudi~Syrian relationship~properly emphasizing the immense~often subtly and suddenly shifting~and~to the Western mind~inscrutable~complexities of that area of the world.~

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Syrian President Bashar Assad (R) and Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdel Aziz (L) descend by escalator from their aircraft upon their arrival at Rafiq Hariri international airport, Beirut 30 July 2010, during an official visit. (Photo: AFP – Joseph Eid)

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By: Yazan al-Saadi

Published Saturday, February 4, 2012

The increasingly adversarial relationship between Saudi Arabia and Syria is the rule rather than the exception. The two influential Arab states have often found themselves in opposing camps regionally and globally.

In his biography of Hafez Assad, Patrick Seale casually recounts that when the founder of the current Saudi state King Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud was on his deathbed, he warned his sons to “keep your eye on Syria” to protect Saudi interests. Whether this “legend,” as Seale termed it, occurred or not is unknown. What is true, however, is that Saudi Arabia and Syria have had their interactions with one another marred by adversarial interests, with fleeting moments of cooperation, since that fateful warning by the late Saudi king.

On Saturday, the current Saudi king, Abdullah Ibn Abd al-Aziz, cancelled the kingdom’s al-Janadriyah festival ostensibly in solidarity with the Syrian people. Earlier last month, reports by the Kuwaiti newspaper Al-Rai revealed that Saudi Arabia may recognize and fund the Syrian National Council (SNC) in an effort to have current Syrian President Bashar Assad removed from power as he attempts to survive an on-going, widespread uprising. The news broke only one day after the Arab League, pressured by Saudi Arabia, announced its decision to suspendits monitoring mission in Syria. Subsequently, the League suppressed the mission’s report and transferred the matter to the UN Security Council.

It seems that Saudi Arabia has banked on the end of Assad’s rule. The Saudi monarchy certainly hopes that a new government will emerge and that any government which emerges afterward will be more appeasing to Saudi interests. But, they also are working to ensure the transitional process does not plunge the region into turmoil.

The Struggle for the Middle East

Ever since the formation of the modern nation-states of Syria and Saudi Arabia, the relationship has always been turbulent. In the grand geopolitical power struggle, both countries commonly found themselves on opposing sides, each representing diametrically opposing ideologies that clashed within their borders or through proxies in Lebanon, Palestine, and elsewhere.

Syria prides itself as a secular republic and a bastion of Arab nationalism, with close ties to Russia. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia is a reactionary monarchy and embodies itself as a caretaker of Islam, while having an extensive bond with the US and Western Europe. True, the rhetoric of the two countries may not correspond with their practice, but the ideological narratives they superficially embrace are in conflict, and much of their foreign policy aims have been at odds.

Particularly in the 1950s and the 1960s, with the rise of Gamal Abdul Nasser’s pan-Arabism and the divide created by the Cold War, Syria and Saudi Arabia were firmly situated in rival camps. Each of these nations hosted the other’s opposition, exported competing propaganda, and developed opposing alliances. Yet, they did work together when they needed to.

This struggle played out in major events. Notably, Saudi Arabia, with Jordan and the US, backed a coup that dissolved Syria’s union with Egypt in 1961. That coup was short-lived. Baathists took over in 1963, which reignited the animosity between Saudi Arabia and Syria.

It was not until after the 1967 war, with the death of Nasser and the ascendancy of Hafez Assad, that relations significantly warmed up. King Faisal, the son-successor to Abdul-Aziz and a fierce opponent to Nasser, steadily sought to attract Syria with financial aid, offering more than US$1 billion annually.

This seemingly tepid relation was cut short during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Assad’s regime faced an assertive Muslim Brotherhood (MB) and was spurned by Sadat’s peace with Israel. Despite Syrian objections, Saudi Arabia did not expel MB leaders residing in the kingdom nor did the Saudis steadfastly oppose Egypt’s peace initiatives.

Syria’s alliance with the Islamic Republic of Iran, which blossomed during the Iran-Iraq War while the Saudis allied with Saddam’s Iraq, furthered tensions. The civil war in Lebanon permitted some respite as Saudi Arabia and Syria sporadically cooperated to preserve their respective interests. Their competing policies toward Iran and Lebanon, seeded during this decade, in many ways shaped relations between Syria and Saudi Arabia in the following decades.

Half-Men and Good Smells in the Air

The 1990s can be argued as the quintessential golden age for Saudi-Syrian collaboration. Both shared power over Lebanon after Taif. Iran was less of a threat at that time since American forces maintained a heavy presence in the Gulf. Also, neither Saudi Arabia nor Syria were interested in undermining the other politically.

This era of mutual understanding came to a dramatic end during the reign of Bashar Assad, with Lebanon being the primary cause. In particular, the assassination of business tycoon and politician Rafik Hariri, who had Saudi-Lebanese citizenship and was near to the Saudi monarchy, was the breaking point. The Syrian military presence, which had been stationed in Lebanon since 1976, was forced out of Lebanon. It did however maintain and enhance its alliance with Hezbollah, a Lebanese resistance organization the Saudis thoroughly loathed.

The relationship continued its descent during the 2006 Israeli attack on Lebanon. Saudi Arabia, and its allies, had hoped that Israel would be able to annihilate Hezbollah. Yet, it survived 34-days of bombardment and was able to stop Israeli soldiers from advancing far into Lebanese territory, boosting its regional popularity, as well as Assad’s.

Assad’s confidence came across during a speech to celebrate the “victory,” in which he dubbed, without naming names, the leaders of Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia as “half-men.” Soon after, Syrian influence reasserted itself politically in Lebanon to the irritation of the Saudis.

The following two years saw the lowest point between Damascus and Riyadh. High-level contacts between the two powerful states were practically non-existent.

Furthermore, America’s belligerent policies brought Syria and Iran closer together. The destruction and occupation of Iraq by Anglo-American forces alarmed the Islamic republic and the Syrian regime, both fearing they would be next. Not surprisingly, the apprehension over security brought them ever-nearer, along political, economic, and military levels.

Syria’s closeness with Iran unnerved the Saudis. Tehran had re-emerged as the central threat to the Gulf with Iraq out of the picture. Despite their own frustration toward Syrian policies, Saudi leaders were equally uneasy over completely isolating or majorly destabilizing Syria, viewing such extreme acts as counter-intuitive. Assad’s regime had perfectly positioned itself at the core of major regional issues, such as those pertaining to Palestine or Iraq. Without Syria’s willing participation, Saudi Arabia would not have been able to further their interests in the region.

In order to break the dangerous impasse in Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Syria began to soften their stances. Various leaked American diplomatic cables, obtained through WikiLeaks, illuminate how Saudi-Syria interactions between 2009-2010 changed. High-level visits were encouraged by the Saudi’s new long-term approach to challenge Iran by ending Syria’s isolation. This, in turn, led to “a good smell in the air” regarding expectations for the future.

The Syrian Uprising and Saudi Arabia

The outbreak of numerous regional uprisings radically changed everything. Most Arab governments and monarchies unexpectedly were confronted by their own population. The uprisings’ nature and vitality compelled governments to reconsider much of their foreign and domestic policies, at least on the surface, in vain attempts to placate a discontented public. It was also an opportunity for governments to realign themselves, or settle old scores.

Ironically, Syria supported the Gulf intervention to quash Bahraini protests, conceivably hoping to curry favor from Gulf countries for challenges it was facing domestically.

The protests in Syria, fueled by brutal attempts by the Assad regime to repress it, grew considerably larger over time. After months of silence, the Saudis condemned the violence by the regime and recalled their ambassador from Damascus. King Abdullah, offering a rare, blunt, and public criticism of another Arab country’s domestic affairs, called on Syria to end its “killing machine.” Likewise, the Saudi authorities turned a blind eye to Syrian demonstrations against the Assad regime within the kingdom. This was quite extraordinary considering Saudi authorities rarely allow public demonstrations, let alone ones conducted by expatriates.

The Saudis view events in Syria as a historic opportunity to enhance their own strategic position. Their main concern is Syria’s relationship with Iran. Saudi Arabia hopes this relationship will be severed by the arrival of a new government, hence the current flirtations with the SNC as a potential alternative.

Certain doubts arise when considering questions regarding the SNC’s lack of a comprehensive representation with the protesters on the ground, or its level of legitimacy with the Syrian public. These doubts are heightened when recognizing that Saudi Arabia has been relentlessly attempting to guide the spread of democratic aspirations under their own terms.

The SNC is a broad organization, composed mostly of Syrian oppositional groups based outside Syria. It has a larger ratio of political religious groups such as the MB, which has historical links with Saudi Arabia. In turn, members of the SNC have been trying to attract Saudi backing since the formation of the organization, frequently sending messages of gratitude and compliments to the Saudi monarchy.

Interestingly, the Syrian regime has not directly confronted the Saudi monarchy. Rather, it has criticized other countries for supporting the opposition and the protests. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Syrian regime still perceives that the situation as salvageable, unwilling to entirely burn the bridge with Riyadh.

These moves by the Saudis may not be as successful as they hope. Haytham al-Manna, a representative of another competing oppositional group, the National Coordination Body for Democratic Change in Syria (NCB), noted in an interview with Al-Akhbar, that religious-political organizations like the MB are supported by about “10 percent of Syrian society.”

In another interview with Al-Akhbar, al-Manna stated, “In the Gulf there is a campaign against the Iranians. This might mean that the Gulf countries will try to turn Syria into a battleground against Iran. But we refuse to become the victims of a war by proxy. We want democracy and freedom in Syria. We do not want to be used by any other power for their interests.”

A recent Foreign Policy report also emphasized increasing worries towards SNC by other oppositional groups. In one particular statement by a defected Syrian soldier who joined the Free Officers Movement (FOM), he described the MB as “malignant” and said that the FOM “has a limited relation with the SNC because they are controlled by the Muslim Brothers.”

Whatever maneuvers the Saudis have planned, history has shown that efforts to bring Syria into their sphere have not borne fruit. Such actions are even more likely to fail now as most of the Syrian public are suspicious of any attempt that undermines their path for liberty and self-determination.

Undoubtedly, Saudi-Syrian relations are in store for more struggles, whether the Assad regime endures or collapses.

Comments

Submitted by Robert.N.Frost (not verified) on Sun, 2012-02-05 09:53.

The operational assumption has been that the SNC belonged to Qatar, who has its differences with Saudi Arabia, even on handling of the ‘Syrian Project.’ This is best demonstrated in the presence of the Saudi Foreign Minister in the Syrian Sub-Committee of The Arab League, when Saudi Arabia is not a member of it. Their presence may well have been to make certain that Qatar does not steal a march on them.

A closer rapprochement between Qatar and Saudi Arabia began probably around the time when the Arab Observers mission began to backfire on Qatar and its distant backers. They had initially believed the Syrians would not accept it, and once they did, Qatar and the rest began to oppose it, almost hysterically.

Qatar seems to be running out of options. The US was not happy either at its two extremely close ‘friends’ being at odds with each other at the critical juncture when all expected that the UN Security Council would give the go ahead to under-the-cover foreign intervention in Syria..

One of the early results of the rapprochement was the meeting the SNC had with the Saudi Foreign Minister following the approval of the Arab League Plan. It later published a rather demeaning poster in a newspaper owned by a Saudi prince, thanking the King and the crown prince for their help!

I tend to believe that the SNC did not seek and obtain financial help. It is is assumed that its support by Qatar is quite adequate. More likely it is visible international support, even recognition as the ‘representatives of the Syrian People,’ that is desired, and which a country like Qatar, with 300,000 inhabitants, cannot possibly provide.

It is likely that such a recognition will lead to others by the members of the Gulf Co-operation Council, and in due course to NATO powers, who would receive an invitation from the Muslim Brothers government – like the one from those in Libya? AT least one Saudi newspaper seems to think so!

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Dear Gentlemen~~Image
A very well done article examining the quixotic, ever-alterable, modern Saudi~Syrian relationship~~properly emphasizing the immense, often subtly, and suddenly shifting~~and~~to the West~~inscrutable~~complexities of that area of the world.
 
Given the current tensions between Damascus and Washington~~these complexities bring to light the startling naiveté of the American Government respecting the movements and motivations of the senior players in the Arabic Region.
 
John Daniel Begg 
At
Washington, District of Columbia
USA
7th Day of September, 2013, Saturday

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image002 (20)


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Sunday, 8th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
North West
Washington, DC 20016-2323533
USA
Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
Telefacsimile: 1-(202) 966-4125
Mobile Telephone: 1-(202) 557-1064


http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=122865699&trk=tab_pro


http://www.facebook.com/JohnDanielBeggPublicAffairs


http://www.facebook.com/john.begg.33


Tweets: @jtdbegg


http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=122865699&trk=hb_tab_pro_top


Website: https://johndanielbegg.wordpress.com

Image

Dear Gentlemen~~Image

A very well done article examining the quixotic, ever-alterable, modern Saudi~Syrian relationship~~properly emphasizing the immense, often subtly, and suddenly shifting~~and~~to the West~~inscrutable~~complexities of that area of the world.
 
Given the current tensions between Damascus and Washington~~these complexities bring to light the startling naiveté of the American Government respecting the movements and motivations of the senior players in the Arabic Region.
 
John Daniel Begg 
At
Washington, District of Columbia
USA
7th Day of September, 2013, Saturday

Are evil men unhappy by medical definition~Michael and I discuss this interesting ethical question~

Asma and Bashar al-Assad — a match made in hell

By Dr. Keith Ablow

Published September 06, 2013

FoxNews.com

Since their marriage in 2000, Asma al-Assad, stylish wife of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, has stood by his side through thick and thin.  This, despite the fact that  her husband Bashar presides over a government which Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch insist routinely tortures, imprisons and kills its political opponents. Most recently, of course, his government is accused of killing over a thousand Syrian men, women and children using chemical weapons.

Asma, who is pretty and fit, is also smart. She was an investment banker at J.P. Morgan when she met the Syrian president, who was then training in London to be an eye surgeon.

Now, people around the world wonder how a woman born in the United Kingdom, with a bachelor’s degree in computer science and French literature, could have stood by as her husband amassed a fortune over $1 billion while serving in public office. And how she could post Instagram photographs of her charity work while presumably hearing that her husband’s regime has used chemical gas to asphyxiate children.

The answer is simple:  Being pretty is no antidote to being greedy nor corrupt nor lacking empathy, even though people instinctively think it ought to be.

Bashar and Asma are a match made in hell because they feed one another’s needs to keep reality at bay.

Being smart and educated is no antidote to being an accomplice, to being an accessory to organized crime (whether as a mafia don’s wife or a dictator’s wife).

And having children is no antidote to malignant narcissism.

You can be slim and wear stylish clothes and have an above-average IQ and still have such deep questions about whether you are worth anything at all, presumably because no one ever loved you for real.

And then you can go about trying to fill yourself up with money, power and the adulation of others, no matter what it takes—including killing people.

In fact, it is an expected result of running from one’s own self-loathing, cloaked in finery and fakery and fraud, that the real and decent people who interact with you will end up emptied out, of their money or their life force, by being in contact with you — let alone having you as their “first lady.”

Bashar al-Assad may have turned out to be a decent eye surgeon if he had indulged the healer inside him, instead of being commandeered by his dictator father into dictatorship.

And Asma al-Assad may have turned out to be a teacher of French literature had she not been raised in an environment that made her famished for finery and fame, such that she traded in her humanity for a palace, which only means she never grew up in anything like a home.

Bashar and Asma are a match made in hell because they feed one another’s needs to keep reality at bay.

They are a dynamic duo of destruction because they were, at some point, for all intents and purposes, destroyed in their humanness.

Now they are in league to distance themselves from that reality, whatever it takes—even killing kids, which is only a stark physical representation of what must have happened to them, psychologically.

Add to this the fact that a large segment of the world community has endorsed their brand of tyranny to keep another malignancy at bay — radical Islam — and all the ingredients for chemical weapons were stirring in the cauldron for years.

Because there’s one thing about monsters that is confounding:  They are sometimes ruthless at tearing down other monsters.

All marriages make psychological sense, even the ones that make for mass murder.

Dr. Keith Ablow is a psychiatrist and member of the Fox News Medical A-Team. Dr. Ablow can be reached at info@keithablow.com.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2013/09/06/asma-and-bashar-al-assad-match-made-in-hell/#ixzz2eAC1XjRF

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From Michael to me~~

I thought you might be interested in this article: Asma and Bashar al-Assad — a match made in hell.

Sent via the FOX News iPhone App. Download the app here.

John Begg <jtdbegg@gmail.com>
7:47 PM (1 hour ago)

 

to Michael
Just what makes the good doctor think that evil people are unhappy by definition~~I mean is that a rule of medicine~~is the American President unhappy~~is Mr Putin unhappy~~is Her Majesty unhappy~~are you unhappy~~am I unhappy~~is the good doctor unhappy?  If so~~why so~~if not so~~why not so?  I find the good doctor’s note very thin gruel for supper this evening~~
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Michael Wendling
7:58 PM (55 minutes ago)

 
to me
Perhaps what he saying is that their happiness is a “false” happiness and maybe the only one they’re able to “feel” based on his assertion that their deep insecurities and never having been “loved” for their genuine worth make true “happiness” ultimately unattainable.  But I’m alas I’m not a shrink; but to your specific point; I tend to think “evil” people by definition very “happy” based on the fact the that take whatever they want for themselves and acquiesce to all temptation. Sent from my iPhone

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John Begg <jtdbegg@gmail.com>
8:15 PM (39 minutes ago)

to Michael
I just don’t pretend to know this stuff~~who the hell is happy~~and for what reasons~~you know these kids were international poster children for well-adjusted Arabs a few years ago~~hailed as such by the incumbent  American President~~what people seem to forget in this is that they are the established power and that the rebels are intent on their violent overthrow~~what would anyone do?
What would Putin do~~or the Chinese~~or the American government~~ or Her Majesty’s Government~~if armed men declared they were going to overthrow them~~they would liquidate their opponents~~that is what they would do~~when you try to violently overthrow an established government~~you will be met with violence~~I do not hear this being discussed~~it is typical of this government at Washington to be sanctimonious on this~~they would blow away violent revolutionaries trying to overthrow them without a second’s thought and they would use any available weaponry to do so~~and any thinking man know this~~
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Michael Wendling
9:08 PM (5 minutes ago)

to me
Oh I agree with that; and I don’t think the American Government is going to do anything. ~~
Sent from my iPhone
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John Begg <jtdbegg@gmail.com>
9:12 PM (1 minute ago)

to Michael
Pray God not~
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Michael Wendling
9:14 PM (1 minute ago)

to me
Yes
Sent from my iPhone
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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


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John Begg <jtdbegg@gmail.com>
7:47 PM (1 hour ago)

to Michael
Just what makes the good doctor think that evil people are unhappy by definition~~I mean is that a rule of medicine~~is the American President unhappy~~is Mr Putin unhappy~~are you unhappy~~am I unhappy~~is the good doctor unhappy?  If so~~why so~~if not so~~why not so?  I find the good doctor’s note very thin gruel for supper this evening~~

 

American Optimism=American Abundance~despite the gloom~stay ever Optimistic~America~

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Norman Rockwell’s works were inspirational and intended to illustrate more an America of optimism than of abundance~~and that~~more than abundance is what is so missing in today’s America~~optimism~~

 

American households may want to prepare for some chilling moments this fall, and not because of the weather.

For American workers and the U.S. economy, “autumn could be scary,” The Washington Post states.

In fact, polls show more than half of U.S. workers believe the United States is still in a recession. And it warns that the economy is facing a bundle of headwinds this fall that could prove particularly tough for poor and middle class Americans. 

“Unfortunately, we seem to be entering another of those periods of elevated risk,” economists at Bank of America Merrill Lynch warned in a report last week, The Post reports.

In an economy plagued with low-wage and part-time jobs, Americans’ wages have declined since the recession. It’s not just gas station attendants or fast-food workers that are feeling the wage pinch, The Post notes, government wages have fallen 5 percent since January. 

Gains in incomes are hardly keeping pace with inflation, which is a sign employment will need to pick up for the expansion to strengthen, according to Bloomberg. 

But millions are still aching for jobs and employers are not expected to rush to boost salaries given the state of the labor market. 

Consumer spending is a lifeblood of the U.S economy and data show declines in July, indicating the world’s largest economy was off to a slow start in the third quarter, Bloomberg explains. 

And some are skeptical about seeing improvement in consumer spending when the August data is released.

With household budgets already showing signs of strain, Americans are facing the prospects of rising fuel costs as they move toward the cooler months. Generally, Labor Day marks the end of high summer gas prices. 

However, USA Today says drivers should not hold their breath expecting the typical September savings any time soon. 

Gasoline is currently averaging $3.56 a gallon. There were wide scale expectations for a decline to $3.40 by early fall, but USA Today says many forecasters are now looking for a short-term spike of 10 cents a gallon, amid fears of military action against Syria. 

The housing recovery was considered a bright spot in the economy, underwriting optimism that economic conditions were improving. But now there are questions emerging about potential cracks in that market as interest rates are rising faster than expected. 

Added to these concerns are fears that the Federal Reserve will taper its stimulus program, removing support from a seemingly fragile economy. Then, there’s the likelihood that lawmakers in Washington will create economic turbulence fighting over the federal budget and debt limit. 

And despite the apparent strain, sequestration looks like it’s here for at least another year, the Post says.

“Just when you thought the U.S. economy was ready to break out of its lackluster 2 percent growth pace that has dominated the recovery, reality hits,” The Post say researchers at RBC Capital Markets wrote in a report.

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I thank the press outlets and corporate contributors named in this article for their good efforts~~
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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~

 

Rejoice and Glad!!

 

Amen~~

 

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EX LIBRIS

 

~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~

 

JOHN DANIEL BEGG

 

At

 

Washington, District of Columbia

 

United States

 

Friday, 6th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~

 

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John Daniel Begg

 

At

 

Washington DC

 

JOHN DANIEL BEGG

 

PRESIDENT

 

john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting

 

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Image

Norman Rockwell’s works were inspirational and intended to illustrate more an America of optimism than of abundance~~and that~~more than abundance is what is so missing in today’s America~~optimism~~

Ugly End Game at Damascus~The White House’s Syria War Initiative is lost~by high numbers in the House~The President is finished as a leader on any level~and if he bombs Syria without authority he will be both impeached and convicted~Speaker Boehner and Leader Cantor placed bad bets on Syria and will lose their jobs over this fiasco as well they should~meanwhile~internationally~the Syria debacle has left America yet more weakened, rudderless, ineffective and lethargic~

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 Syria~~soon to be~~an American no-fly zone~~

President Barack Obama appears to be dangerously close to what would be a historic rebuke at the hands of Congress, if the current whip-count projections on the authorization to attack Syria continue to hold.

Pundits on both sides of the aisle say losing the high-stakes bid for congressional authorization would make Obama an instant lame-duck, and might well endanger his entire second-term agenda.

The resolution authorizing an attack on Syrian strongman Bashar Assad, as punishment for his use of chemical weapons against his own people, is still expected to pass the Democratic-controlled Senate.

But the real question mark all along has been whether the administration could muster enough support to get the attack resolution through the House. And there, the situation for the administration appears to be growing dimmer by the hour.

Various news organizations are contacting members of Congress to see where they stand on the attack authorization. While each outlet has different numbers, the ominous sign for the administration is that all of them show the “no” votes outpacing the “yes” votes by a more than a 3-1 margin.

Most alarming for the administration may be The Washington Post whip count.

The Post has contacted 371 of the 435 members of the House. Of those contacted, 204 representatives are against authorization or leaning against it. That compares to 24 members in favor and 143 members who are undecided, and 48 of the undecided representatives are Republicans.

Of the undecided members, the Post reports, many of them have yet to receive the administration’s intelligence briefing on the sarin gas attack in Syria. About 25 percent of those opposed to the authorization are Democrats, which means the resistance to the proposal is clearly bipartisan.

Of course, there’s always the chance that last-minute lobbying by the administration will change the political calculus. But with an election year looming and both the Democratic and GOP bases opposed to further military excursions in the Middle East, the Obama administration appears to be in serious trouble.

Obama canceled a scheduled trip on Monday to California so he can remain in Washington to lobby legislators before the vote. There are indications he also may make a nationally televised address in a bid to rally public support.

The concern that Congress might balk at authorizing the attack, just as the House of Commons did in Britain, was precisely the reason several Obama aides argued strongly against the president’s surprise announcement on Saturday to ask Congress to OK his war plans against Syria.

On Thursday afternoon, as the whip counts were being tallied, the realization dawned in the nation’s capital that President Obama is perilously close to what would be an historic, humiliating international rebuke.

To date, no major military power or international organization has supported Obama’s stated intention to launch a cruise-missile barrage at Assad, the so-called “shot across the bow.”

Aaron Blake and Sean Sullivan of The Washington Post reported the prospects for getting the measure through the House “are looking progressively dimmer for the Obama administration.”

On Wednesday, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee sent the resolution to the full Senate chamber by a 10-7 vote. But by Thursday, there appeared to be a growing groundswell of opinion against the proposal.

On his radio program Thursday, Fox host Geraldo Rivera announced that he had changed his mind and will now oppose the initiation of any hostilities against Assad, saying, “I can’t support this decision to get involved in the Syrian civil war.”

In an email statement to Newsmax, Rivera elaborated on his change of heart.

“If a punitive strike is called for in Syria,” Rivera said in an email, “why wasn’t a punitive strike called for in Libya after Ambassador Stevens and his three brave colleagues were killed last year in Benghazi?

“Assad committed a crime against humanity. It’s the world’s job to punish [him], not just ours.”

The veteran newsman and commentator went on to predict that the resolution will fail.

“Congress will not approve this, and the president must not defy the obvious and growing opposition to this ill-advised and admittedly ill-defined act,” he wrote. “Once a missile is lobbed, there is no such thing as a limited and measured result.”

If Obama were to lose on the key congressional vote, the political repercussions would be profound.

Veteran pollster and columnist Matt Towery of Insider/Advantage Polling tells Newsmax that Obama’s support in the House looks so shaky right now it could even begin to cost him support in the Senate.

“I think the president is in extraordinarily deep trouble, as are the House leaders who put their necks out on this,” Towery tells Newsmax.

He added that with the vote in the House scheduled soon after Congress returns to session on Sept. 9, the clock is already running out for Obama to recapture the momentum.

“The sense of urgency is about to be lost here,” he said.

Democratic pollster and Fox News commentator Doug Schoen, a contributor to Newsmax magazine, says that everyone will lose if support for the resolution implodes.

“Obama will seek to blame the Republicans if he loses the vote on Syria, as he has with issue after issue, time after time. On this occasion,” he said, “I believe the strategy will fail — if only because as the United States comes to look weaker and weaker, so too will President Obama.”

The biggest losers in the battle, Towery says, may be House Leaders John Boehner and Eric Cantor, because they have voiced support for the measure.

“I don’t think this will be a history-making failure on Obama’s part, because I think his presidency is basically at a point where it is viewed as ineffective and pretty much at its end anyway. This may be the bow at the top of the package marking the ineffectiveness in the second term. But I don’t think this will be a new emblem of failure. I mean, we’re already there,” Towery said.

But he added: “It would be very difficult for Boehner and Cantor to be re-elected to leadership of the House, with this sort of revolt on their hands.”

He also called the division within the GOP between the leadership and the base “a harbinger of things to come.”

“A Republican Party that is barely holding itself together at the seams in my opinion is splitting itself apart,” Towery said. “In my opinion, that’s almost as big a story as a president who in his second term is proving to be almost completely ineffective.”

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Meanwhile~~outside the American Zone~~things look substantially less pleasant for the Americans~~

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President Obama Faces Sharp Criticism on Syria Plan at G20 Summit

Top News: President Obama was met with a skeptical crowd of world leaders as he made the case for military strikes in Syria at the meeting of the G20 yesterday in St. Petersburg, Russia. China and Russia issued sharp rebukes, with Russian President Vladimir Putin going so far to say that Secretary of State John Kerry deliberately misled members of Congress in his testimony this week. U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stressed the need for any intervention to have the approval of the U.N. Security Council, though U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power told reporters yesterday that the United States will not press for such a resolution given Russia and China’s obstinacy. Members of the European Union questioned the likely effectiveness of planned strikes, and the Catholic Church called for the international community to use peaceful means to resolve the Syrian civil war.

In other discussions at the G20 summit, Russia warned that the international community must guard against a potential relapse into an economic crisis as the United States begins selling foreign currency reserves. The United States, Russia, and China signaled that they would be less receptive to future proposals for bailouts for faltering countries and called on developing nations to restructure their economies before its too late. The BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa — announced a plan for a $100 billion currency reserve to be tapped in the event of a balance of payments crisis.

Syria: President Obama instructed planners at the Pentagon to expand its list of potential targets based on new intelligence of Syrian troop movements. On Capitol Hill, where debates continue as to whether Congress should authorize the use of military force against Syria, some lawmakers are casting doubts on Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel’s testimony that strike would cost only “tens of millions of dollars.”


Americas

  • Brazil is accelerating a new information security regime for government communications in light of recent revelations that it was a target of NSA spying.
  • Documents leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden demonstrate that the NSA can break powerful encryption technology, prompting new concerns from digital privacy experts..
  • Jose Trevino Morales, brother of two leaders of Mexican drug cartel Los Zetas, wasconvicted by a U.S. court to 20 years in prison for money laundering in a horse racing scheme.

Asia

  • The South Korean parliament voted to allow riot police to arrest extreme left-wing politician Lee Seok-Ki on charges of sedition.
  • Sushmita Banerjee, whose memoir of her marriage and escape from Taliban-controlled Afghanistan was an Indian bestseller, was assassinated by Taliban gunmen in Paktika Province.
  • South Korea has banned the import of fish from eight Japanese prefectures in response to concerns about leaking radiation from the damaged Fukushima plant.

Middle East

  • The United States government has intercepted an Iranian order to attack U.S. interests in Iraq in the event of a U.S. strike in Syria, the Wall Street Journalreports.
  • The Syrian government has deployed reinforcements to the predominantly Christian town of Maaloula, north of Damascus, which was attacked by Islamic extremist rebels this week.
  • A spokesman for the Egyptian government denied that a decision to dissolve the Muslim Brotherhood has been reached.

Africa

  • Kenyan lawmakers have passed a preliminary motion to withdraw from the International Criminal Court in response to ICC charges against Kenya’s president and deputy president; passage of a bill formalizing the withdrawal is forthcoming.
  • Oil company Shell has announced it will negotiate compensation for 15,000 Nigerians who were affected by oil spills from Shell-operated pipelines in 2008.
  • The leaders of several Central African nations have called for the resumption of peace talks between the Congolese government and the M23 rebels in the next three days.

Europe

  • A new bill proposed in the Russian Duma would allow the government to take custody of the children of gay parents.
  • German police raided the enclave of a Christian religious sect on grounds of suspected child abuse, taking custody of 40 children.
  • The European Union threatened to bring legal action against Croatia if it does not alter extradition laws protecting figures from the country’s 1990s war for independence.

-By J. Dana Stuster

Sergey Guneev/Host Photo Agency via Getty Images

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I thank the various press sources cited~~for their contributions here today~~

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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Friday, 6th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
North West
Washington, DC 20016-2323533
USA
Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
Telefacsimile: 1-(202) 966-4125
Mobile Telephone: 1-(202) 557-1064


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End Game at Damascus~The White House’s Syria War Initiative is lost~by high numbers in the House~The President is finished as a leader on any level~and if he bombs Syria without authority he will be both impeached and convicted~Speaker Boehner and Leader Cantor placed bad bets on Syria and will lose their jobs over this fiasco as well they should~

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 President and Mrs. Assad~~whose jobs likewise~~are in grave jeopardy~~

Si~Mi~Heroina~

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Getting out the all-important Spanish vote~~Friedrich Bayer & Company of Germany invented both branded Aspirin and Heroin and went all in for the Spanish market~~long before the politicians even thought of doing that~~

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Heroin – Aspirin’s evil brother

heroin (1)

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heroin (n.) Look up heroin at Dictionary.com1898, from German Heroin, coined 1898 as trademark registered by Friedrich Bayer & Co. for their morphine substitute, traditionally from Greek heros (see hero(n.1)) because of the euphoric feeling the drug provides, but no evidence for this seems to have been found so far.

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A new hypnotic, to which the name of “heroin” has been given, has been tried in the medical clinic of Professor Gerhardt in Berlin. [“The Lancet,” Dec. 3, 1898]

Advertisement ~~

advertisement for Heroin
Heroin as a cough medicine~~

While opium itself has been commonly used since at least 3400 BC, heroin is a relatively new invention, derived from opium.  Heroin, more technically known as diacetylmorphine, was first synthesized in 1874 by chemist Charles Romley Alder Wright, working at St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School in London, England.  He discovered the drug after playing around with mixing morphine with various acids.  Specifically, he created it after boiling acetic anhydride with anhydrous morphine alkaloid for a few hours, which resulted in what we now commonly call heroin.  After running a few experiments with it on animals, though, he abandoned his work on the drug.

Twenty three years later, a man named Felix Hoffman, working at Bayer, in Germany, managed to independently synthesize Heroin when he was trying to produce codeine.  This new derivative of opium was found to be significantly more potent than morphine and so Heinrich Dreser, head of the pharmacological laboratory at Bayer, decided they should move forward with it, rather than another drug they had recently created (Aspirin).

It should be noted that Dreser was apparently well aware of Wright having synthesized Heroin 23 years before, but despite this, he claimed heroin was an original Bayer product and by early 1898, they began the animal testing phase of the product, testing it primarily on rabbits and frogs.  They next moved on to testing it on people, primarily workers at Bayer, including Heinrich Dreser himself.

After successful trials, Heroin was presented to the Congress of German Naturalists and Physicians as more or less a miracle drug that was “10 times” more effective than codeine as a cough medicine and worked even better than morphine as a pain killer.  He also stated that it had almost no toxic effects including being completely non-addictive.  Dreser particularly pushed Heroin as the drug of choice for treating asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and phthisis.

If it seems odd to you that he should push Heroin as a cough medicine, over its pain killing effects, it should be noted that at the time tuberculosis and pneumonia were among the world’s leading causes of death and one of the leading methods to treat this was using codeine, which is fairly addictive given regular use.  Because Heroin worked well as a sedative and respiration depressor, it did indeed work extremely well as a type of cough medicine and allowed people affected by debilitating coughs to finally be able to get some proper rest, free from coughing fits.  Further, because it was marketed as non-addictive, unlike morphine or codeine, it was initially seen as a major medical breakthrough.

Just one year after its release, Heroin became a world-wide hit, despite it not actually being marketed directly to the public, but rather simply to physicians.   Heroin was soon sold in a variety of forms: mixed in cough syrup; made into tablets; mixed in a glycerin solution as an elixir; and put into water-soluble heroin salts, among others. At the end of this first year, it was popularly sold in over 23 countries with Bayer producing around one ton of it in that year.

Obviously, it quickly became apparent that Bayer’s claims of the drug not being addictive were completely false, with reports popping up within months of its widespread release.  Despite this, it continued to sell well in the medical field.  Finally, in 1913, after the number of Heroin addicts began to skyrocket and it became likely that it would shortly be banned in many countries, Bayer decided to stop producing the drug.

Bonus Facts:

  • The originally trademarked name of Heroin is thought to derive the German word “heroisch” (heroic), due to the way the workers who tested Heroin on themselves reported that it made them feel.  Bayer ultimately lost the trademark for Heroin in a few key markets at the same time they were forced to give up their trademark on Aspirin, thanks to WWI.  During WWI, Bayer’s assets, including their trademark rights, in the U.S. and the Triple Entente allies (UK, France, and Russia) were confiscated and it became common to simply refer to all brands of the drug as “Aspirin” in those countries, among others.  Finally, after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Bayer officially lost their trademarks on Heroin and Aspirin in the U.S., France, Russia, and the UK.
  • Interestingly, one of the common early uses of Heroin was to help treat people who were addicted to morphine, even though Heroin ultimately proved to be more addictive.  Humorously, when morphine was first isolated from opium in 1805, one of its early uses was as a “non-addictive” drug to treat people who were addicted to opium.
  • Felix Hoffman didn’t just help introduce Heroin to the world, in 1897, he also was one of the first people to synthesize a version of something called salicyclic acid.  His version, though, didn’t have the extreme negative stomach pain side effects normally associated with that particular chemical. “His” drug, acetylsalicyclic acid, is more commonly known as aspirin.
  • Hoffman was not technically the first to synthesize aspirin.  That distinction goes to French chemist Charles Freferic Gerhardt who did it in 1853.  However, Gerhardt’s method resulted in an unstable and impure form of aspirin.  Hoffman’s method had no such deficiencies, though others had also managed to achieve this feat before Hoffmann (resulting in numerous lawsuits being filed against Bayer over this after they introduced Aspirin).
  • The salicyclic acid aspirin is derived from actually has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.  This chemical is naturally found in the bark of a Willow tree. Indeed, Hippocrates himself somewhere between 460 BC and 377 BC described a powder from the Willow tree used to treat symptoms such as headaches various types of pain, fever, etc.
  • When aspirin was first recommended to Dreser for Bayer to move forward with, he rejected it, stating “The product has no value”.  Today, over 40 billion tablets of aspirin are consumed annually.  Once Heroin’s star began to fall as people began to realize how addictive it was, he revisited his decision on Aspirin, which quickly became Bayer’s best selling product.
  • After Heinrich Dreser left Bayer, he once again is thought to have picked Heroin over Aspirin, this time to his doom when he eventually died of a stroke. It is rumored that in his waning years, he began taking heroin daily, rather than aspirin, to treat his health problems.   What is ironical about this, of course, is that a daily dose of aspirin may well have prevented his stroke.
  • Both morphine and codeine were isolated from opium in the same year, 1805, with morphine being reported to be about ten times as potent as opium itself.  As such, it quickly became one of the more popular medicinal and recreational drugs in many places in the world, particularly the United States where it was used very commonly as a pain reliever.
  • When heroin is orally ingested, its effects are drastically reduced due to the fact that it is converted to morphine when it is metabolized by your body.  This may partially explain why the addictive effects of heroin were not instantly apparent, as is often the case with modern methods junkies use to partake in this drug which result in it being able to cross the blood-brain barrier extremely quickly.
  • Today there are an estimated 15-20 million people who are addicted to heroin.
  • While heroin is outlawed in most countries in the world, it is still not so uncommonly used medicinally in the UK for treating various things such as for post-caesarian section and other post-surgery pain. It’s also used to help relieve pain in cancer patients and for others who have chronic pain.  However, in recent years this usage has begun to tail off, in favor of other drugs, such as morphine.  Today, medical use of heroin in the UK accounts for an estimated 95% of the legal usage of heroin in the world.
  • Bayer was started by Friedrich Bayer and Johann Friedrich Weskott in 1863 as a chemical company making various paints, rather than pharmaceuticals.  Another major company today that started out making dyes and now is famous for making something completely different is Crayola.  Read more about this here: Where the Words Crayola and Crayon Come From
  • Aspirin is thought to have significantly contributed to the death toll in the 1918 flu epidemic due to the fact that high doses of aspirin can be toxic and these high doses can lead to fluid build up in the lungs, upping the chance of infection.
  • Bayer had their legacy significantly tarnished during WWII when they became part of the Farben German chemical company conglomerate that is known to have used slave labor during WWII, including managing slave labor camps.  Further, Farben was the group that manufactured Zyklon B.  Why is this important?  Because Zyklon B was the cyanide based pesticide used in the Nazi gas chambers.  Bayer was forced to separate from Farben after WWII.
  • One of Bayer’s executive officers during WWII, Fritz ter Meer, who was the chairman of Bayer’s supervisory board, was tried and convicted during the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal and sentenced to seven years in prison. He reportedly was involved in various experiments done at Auschwitz on human subjects.  Specifically, the charges he was convicted of were: “guilty of count two, plunder and spoliation, and count three, slavery and mass murder.”
  • Bayer currently grosses around $45 billion per year, with about $2 billion per year of that as profit.  They also have well over 100,000 employees.

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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


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Bayer also went after the grown up Spanish market~~not to leave anyone out~~

Getting out the all-important Spanish vote~~Friedrich Bayer & Company of Germany invented both branded Aspirin and Heroin and went all in for the Spanish market~long before the politicians even thought of doing that~

Peace with Honor~Peace in our Time~War to end all War~the banality of the West comes now to Arabia~who says Washington politicians can’t play nice~90%+ of Americans are opposed to war in Syria and~by golly~we are going to war in Syria~

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www.marieclaire.co.uk

Baby Prince George Alexander Louis~~appears here to be asleep~~but he is likely sober~~and absolutely more intelligent than are American politicians~~and I say~~let the baby prince drive the bus in the middle east circus for us~~he has the bloodline, he can likely pass a DUI~~who at Washington can do that~~and all that area over there used to belong to his family anyway~~let’s allow the baby prince to surgically operate on young Assad~~and let our boys get back to their bottles~~

My~~paternal~~family has always been Royalist~~since years before the American Revolution~~and, of late, we’ve settled for the Republicans~~as~~where the hell else are we going to go~~to mingle with the Aborigines~~still and all~~I must say, on hearing the lamentations of the drunkards at Capitol Hill on, and ever on, about war with Syria~~we’ve a far better chance of letting this kid, baby prince George~~drive the bus in the Middle East~

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Of course~~there is the tried and true, current, alternative~~we can rely on the~~swashbuckling~~political men of Washington~~who~~stand up~~after a fashion~~and declare war~~notwithstanding 90%+ of Americans being against war~~

Meanwhile~~

Washington and Russia remained publicly at odds over Syria on Wednesday with President Vladimir Putin accusing U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry of lying by playing down the role of al-Qaida with rebel forces.

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“He is lying and knows he is lying.”

Those naughty Russians~~
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Mr. Putin can be very brusque and direct~~habits not usual at Washington~~

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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


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EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Thursday, 6th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
North West
Washington, DC 20016-2323533
USA
Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
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Peace with Honor~~Peace in our Time~~War to end all War~~the banality of the West comes now to Arabia~~who says Washington politicians can’t play nice~~90%+ of Americans are opposed to war in Syria and~~by golly~~we are going to war in Syria~~

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Mr. Chamberlain landed at Heston Aerodrome on 30 September 1938, and spoke to the crowds there:

The settlement of the Czechoslovakian problem, which has now been achieved is, in my view, only the prelude to a larger settlement in which all Europe may find peace. This morning I had another talk with the German Chancellor,  Herr Hitler, and here is the paper which bears his name upon it as well as mine. Some of you, perhaps, have already heard what it contains but I would just like to read it to you: ‘ … We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again.’[3]

Later that day he stood outside 10 Downing Street and again read from the document and concluded:

My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time. We thank you from the bottom of our hearts. Go home and get a nice quiet sleep.[3]

Upon hearing of the Munich Settlement and the avoiding of a new world war, U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt sent a 2 word telegram to Chamberlain:

Good man.

Yeah~~great guy~~ Frank~~they’re all great guys~~these men who end wars~~after first~~starting them~~

Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-H12751,_Godesberg,_Vorbereitung_Münchener_Abkommen

All the boys were signing papers~~pledging peace with honour~~pledging everlasting friendship~~all the boys~~honorable boys~~with their papers~~of friendship and honour~~does man ever learn to discern the difference between right and wrong and the difference between paper and platitudes and~~reality Herself~~does man ever learn~~will he ever~~learn these differences~~between “another talk” and reality Herself~~

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 “This morning I had another talk with the German Chancellor,  Herr Hitler, and here is the paper which bears his name upon it as well as mine.”

Young Paul on the road to Damascus~asks of the graying, sleepy old men~in their~uniformly~horrid clothes~Quo Vadis~Whither goest thou??~

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The graying, dying, self-besotted, hippies of the 1960’s are speaking sanctimoniously of Syria today on The Capitol Hill~~watch how so they are very proud of themselves in their~~uniformly~~hideous suits, dime-store political titles and tiresome rhetoric of 50 years now gone by~~they detest business and they love war~~watch also that~~the young, restless, thoughtful, earnest, ones of today seek their hour of power when there will be a love of business and jobs for all~~and a detestation of war~~

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 Young Paul on the road to Damascus~~asks of the graying, sleepy old men~~Quo Vadis~~Whither goest thou??~~

There are comparatively few constants at Washington~~one is~~that no matter the generation~~or the Party~~the suits are always~~uniformly~~dreadful~~and the other is that~~again irrespective of generation or Party~~the young men want peace and the old men want war~~or so they say~~

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John Kerry, 27, testifies about the war in Vietnam before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in Washington, April 22, 1971. (Photo by Henry Griffin/AP)

Washington, District of Columbia~~a city at which a boy of no social background whatsoever can~~what is the American phrase~~oh, yes~~make something of himself~~and then~~forget what it was he made~~the only constants here are~~you must wear~~uniformly~~revolting clothes~~at all times~~and~~when young~~you must pretend to be against war~~and~~when old and gray~~pretend to be for war~~or something like that~~

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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


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EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


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Wednesday, 4th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


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John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
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Washington, DC 20016-2323533
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Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
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The graying, dying, self-besotted, hippies of the 1960’s are speaking  sanctimoniously of Syria today on The Capitol Hill~~watch how so they are very proud of themselves in their~~uniformly~~wretched suits, dime-store political titles and tiresome rhetoric of 50 years now gone by~~they detest business and they love war~~watch also that~~the young, restless, thoughtful, earnest, ones of today seek their hour of power when there will be a love of business and jobs for all~~and a detestation of war~~

My dears~~Ask of the graying, sleepy old men~Quo Vadis~~Whither goest thou??~~

Henry Ford~a man of few words~invariably~picked the right ones~

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Henry Ford~~a man of few words~~invariably~~picked the right ones~~

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~~Κύριε ἐλέησον~~


Rejoice and Glad!!


Amen~~


clip_image002MA9982782-0001


EX LIBRIS


~~THEOS EK MĒCHANĒS~~


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


At


Washington, District of Columbia


United States


Wednesday, 4th September, Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi, 2013~


Image


John Daniel Begg


At


Washington DC


JOHN DANIEL BEGG


PRESIDENT


john daniel begg public affairs and speechwriting


4853 Sedgwick Street
North West
Washington, DC 20016-2323533
USA
Voice Telephone: 1-(202) 966-8029
Telefacsimile: 1-(202) 966-4125
Mobile Telephone: 1-(202) 557-1064


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Henry Ford~~a man of few words~~invariably~~picked the right ones~~

The most important words ever written about the modern social classes~penned by the most broadly educated, intelligent and searingly thoughtful Pope in the History of God’s Church~Leo XIII~Each needs the other: “capital cannot do without labor, nor labor without capital.”

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Pope Leo XIII (LatinLeo PP. XIIIItalianLeone XIII; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci ~~

 Each needs the other: capital cannot do without labor, nor labor without capital.

The great mistake made in regard to the matter now under consideration is to take up with the notion that class is naturally hostile to class, and that the wealthy and the working men are intended by nature to live in mutual conflict. So irrational and so false is this view that the direct contrary is the truth. Just as the symmetry of the human frame is the result of the suitable arrangement of the different parts of the body, so in a State is it ordained by nature that these two classes should dwell in harmony and agreement, so as to maintain the balance of the body politic. Each needs the other: capital cannot do without labor, nor labor without capital. Mutual agreement results in the beauty of good order, while perpetual conflict necessarily produces confusion and savage barbarity. Now, in preventing such strife as this, and in uprooting it, the efficacy of Christian institutions is marvellous and manifold. First of all, there is no intermediary more powerful than religion (whereof the Church is the interpreter and guardian) in drawing the rich and the working class together, by reminding each of its duties to the other, and especially of the obligations of justice.

 Wikisource-logo.svg Rerum Novarum~~@Paragraph 19.

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The complete, annotated, explanation and letter to His Flock follows on now from Holiness Leo XIII~~

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Rerum Novarum

Encyclical Letter on the Condition of the Working Classes
His Holiness Pope Leo XIII
May 15, 1891

To Our Venerable Brethren the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops and other Ordinaries of Places Having Peace and Communion with the Apostolic See.

Venerable Brethren: Health and Apostolic Benediction.

ONCE THE PASSION for revolutionary change was aroused — a passion long disturbing governments — it was bound to follow sooner or later that eagerness for change would pass from the political sphere over into the related field of economics. In fact, new developments in industry, new techniques striking out on new paths, changed relations of employer and employee, abounding wealth among a very small number and destitution among the masses, increased self-reliance on the part of workers as well as a closer bond of union with one another, and, in addition to all this, a decline in morals have caused conflict to break forth.

2. The momentous nature of the questions involved in this conflict is evident from the fact that it keeps men’s minds in anxious expectation, occupying the talents of the learned, the discussions of the wise and experienced, the assemblies of the people, the judgment of lawmakers, and the deliberations of rulers, so that now no topic more strongly holds men’s interests.

3. Therefore, Venerable Brethren, with the cause of the Church and the common welfare before Us, We have thought it advisable, following Our custom on other occasions when We issued to you the Encyclicals “On Political Power”, “On Human Liberty”, “On the Christian Constitution of States”, and others of similar nature, which seemed opportune to refute erroneous opinions, that We ought to do the same now, and for the same reasons, “On the Condition of Workers.” We have on occasion touched more than once upon this subject. In this Encyclical, however, consciousness of Our Apostolic office admonishes Us to treat the entire question thoroughly, in order that the principles may stand out in clear light, and the conflict may thereby be brought to an end as required by truth and equity.

4. The problem is difficult to resolve and is not free from dangers. It is hard indeed to fix the boundaries of the rights and duties within which the rich and the proletariat — those who furnish material things and those who furnish work — ought to be restricted in relation to each other. The controversy is truly dangerous, for in various places it is being twisted by turbulent and crafty men to pervert judgment as to truth and seditiously to incite the masses.

5. In any event, We see clearly, and all are agreed that the poor must be speedily and fittingly cared for, since the great majority of them live undeservedly in miserable and wretched conditions.

6. After the old trade guilds had been destroyed in the last century, and no protection was substituted in their place, and when public institutions and legislation had cast off traditional religious teaching, it gradually came about that the present age handed over the workers, each alone and defenseless, to the inhumanity of employers and the unbridled greed of competitors. A devouring usury, although often condemned by the Church, but practiced nevertheless under another form by avaricious and grasping men, has increased the evil; and in addition the whole process of production as well as trade in every kind of goods has been brought almost entirely under the power of a few, so that a very few rich and exceedingly rich men have laid a yoke almost of slavery on the unnumbered masses of non-owning workers.

7. To cure this evil, the Socialists, exciting the envy of the poor toward the rich, contend that it is necessary to do away with private possession of goods and in its place to make the goods of individuals common to all, and that the men who preside over a municipality or who direct the entire State should act as administrators of these goods. They hold that, by such a transfer of private goods from private individuals to the community, they can cure the present evil through dividing wealth and benefits equally among the citizens.

8. But their program is so unsuited for terminating the conflict that it actually injures the workers themselves. Moreover, it is highly unjust, because it violates the rights of lawful owners, perverts the function of the State, and throws governments into utter confusion.

9. Clearly the essential reason why those who engage in any gainful occupation undertake labor, and at the same time the end to which workers immediately look, is to procure property for themselves and to retain it by individual right as theirs and as their very own. When the worker places his energy and his labor at the disposal of another, he does so for the purpose of getting the means necessary for livelihood. He seeks in return for the work done, accordingly, a true and full right not only to demand his wage but to dispose of it as he sees fit. Therefore, if he saves something by restricting expenditures and invests his savings in a piece of land in order to keep the fruit of his thrift more safe, a holding of this kind is certainly nothing else than his wage under a different form; and on this account land which the worker thus buys is necessarily under his full control as much as the wage which he earned by his labor. But, as is obvious, it is clearly in this that the ownership of movable and immovable goods consists. Therefore, inasmuch as the Socialists seek to transfer the goods of private persons to the community at large, they make the lot of all wage earners worse, because in abolishing the freedom to dispose of wages they take away from them by this very act the hope and the opportunity of increasing their property and of securing advantages for themselves.

10. But, what is of more vital concern, they propose a remedy openly in conflict with justice, inasmuch as nature confers on man the right to possess things privately as his own.

11. In this respect also there is the widest difference between man and other living beings. For brute beasts are not self-ruling, but are ruled and governed by a two-fold innate instinct, which not only keeps their faculty of action alert and develops their powers properly but also impels and determines their individual movements. By one instinct they are induced to protect themselves and their lives; by the other, to preserve their species. In truth, they attain both ends readily by using what is before them and within immediate range; and they cannot, of course, go further because they are moved to action by the senses alone and by the separate things perceived by the senses. Man’s nature is quite different. In man there is likewise the entire and full perfection of animal nature, and consequently on this ground there is given to man, certainly no less than to every kind of living being, to enjoy the benefits of corporeal goods. Yet animal nature, however perfectly possessed, is far from embracing human nature, but rather is much lower than human nature, having been created to serve and obey it. What stands out and excels in us, what makes man man and distinguishes him generically from the brute, is the mind and reason. And owing to the fact that this animal alone has reason, it is necessary that man have goods not only to be used, which is common to all living things, but also to be possessed by stable and perpetual right; and this applies not merely to those goods which are consumed by use, but to those also which endure after being used.

12. This is even more clearly evident, if the essential nature of human beings is examined more closely. Since man by his reason understands innumerable things, linking and combining the future with the present, and since he is master of his own actions, therefore, under the eternal law, and under the power of God most wisely ruling all things, he rules himself by the foresight of his own counsel. Wherefore it is in his power to choose the things which he considers best adapted to benefit him not only in the present but also in the future. Whence it follows that dominion not only over the fruits of the earth, but also over the earth itself, ought to rest in man, since he sees that things necessary for the future are furnished him out of the produce of the earth. The needs of every man are subject, as it were, to constant recurrences, so that, satisfied today, they make new demands tomorrow. Therefore, nature necessarily gave man something stable and perpetually lasting on which he can count for continuous support. But nothing can give continuous support of this kind save the earth with its great abundance.

13. There is no reason to interpose provision by the State, for man is older than the State. Wherefore he had to possess by nature his own right to protect his life and body before any polity had been formed.

14. The fact that God gave the whole human race the earth to use and enjoy cannot indeed in any manner serve as an objection against private possessions. For God is said to have given the earth to mankind in common, not because He intended indiscriminate ownership of it by all, but because He assigned no part to anyone in ownership, leaving the limits of private possessions to be fixed by the industry of men and the institutions of peoples. Yet, however the earth may be apportioned among private owners, it does not cease to serve the common interest of all, inasmuch as no living being is sustained except by what the fields bring forth. Those who lack resources supply labor, so that it can be truly affirmed that the entire scheme of securing a livelihood consists in the labor which a person expends either on his own land or in some working occupation, the compensation for which is drawn ultimately from no other source than from the varied products of the earth and is exchanged for them.

15. For this reason it also follows that private possessions are clearly in accord with nature. The earth indeed produces in great abundance the things to preserve and, especially, to perfect life, but of itself it could not produce them without human cultivation and care. Moreover, since man expends his mental energy and his bodily strength in procuring the goods of nature, by this very act he appropriates that part of physical nature to himself which he has cultivated. On it he leaves impressed, as it were, a kind of image of his person, so that it must be altogether just that he should possess that part as his very own and that no one in any way should be permitted to violate his right.

16. The force of these arguments is so evident that it seems amazing that certain revivers of obsolete theories dissent from them. These men grant the individual the use of the soil and the varied fruits of the farm, but absolutely deny him the right to hold as owner either the ground on which he has built or the farm he has cultivated. When they deny this right they fail to see that a man will be defrauded of the things his labor has produced. The land, surely, that has been worked by the hand and the art of the tiller greatly changes in aspect. The wilderness is made fruitful; the barren field, fertile. But those things through which the soil has been improved so inhere in the soil and are so thoroughly intermingled with it, that they are for the most part quite inseparable from it. And, after all, would justice permit anyone to own and enjoy that upon which another has toiled? As effects follow the cause producing them, so it is just that the fruit of labor belongs precisely to those who have performed the labor.

17. Rightly therefore, the human race as a whole, moved in no wise by the dissenting opinions of a few, and observing nature carefully, has found in the law of nature itself the basis of the distribution of goods, and, by the practice of all ages, has consecrated private possession as something best adapted to man’s nature and to peaceful and tranquil living together. Now civil laws, which, when just, derive their power from the natural law itself, confirm and, even by the use of force, protect this right of which we speak. — And this same right has been sanctioned by the authority of the divine law, which forbids us most strictly even to desire what belongs to another. “Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his house, nor his field, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is his.” [1]

18. Rights of this kind which reside in individuals are seen to have much greater validity when viewed as fitted into and connected with the obligations of human beings in family life.

19. There is no question that in choosing a state of life it is within the power and discretion of individuals to prefer the one or the other state, either to follow the counsel of Jesus Christ regarding virginity or to bind oneself in marriage. No law of man can abolish the natural and primeval right of marriage, or in any way set aside the chief purpose of matrimony established in the beginning by the authority of God: “Increase and multiply.” [2] Behold, therefore, the family, or rather the society of the household, a very small society indeed, but a true one, and older than any polity! For that reason it must have certain rights and duties of its own independent of the State. Thus, right of ownership, which we have shown to be bestowed on individual persons by nature, must be assigned to man in his capacity as head of a family. Nay rather, this right is all the stronger, since the human person in family life embraces much more.

20. It is a most sacred law of nature that the father of a family see that his offspring are provided with all the necessities of life, and nature even prompts him to desire to provide and to furnish his children, who, in fact reflect and in a sense continue his person, with the means of decently protecting themselves against harsh fortune in the uncertainties of life. He can do this surely in no other way than by owning fruitful goods to transmit by inheritance to his children. As already noted, the family like the State is by the same token a society in the strictest sense of the term, and is governed by its own proper authority, namely, by that of the father. Wherefore, assuming, of course, that those limits be observed which are fixed by its immediate purpose, the family assuredly possesses rights, at least equal with those of civil society, in respect to choosing and employing the things necessary for its protection and its just liberty. We say “at least equal” because, inasmuch as domestic living together is prior both in thought and in fact to uniting into a polity, it follows that its rights and duties are also prior and more in conformity with nature. But if citizens, if families, after becoming participants in common life and society, were to experience injury in a commonwealth instead of help, impairment of their rights instead of protection, society would be something to be repudiated rather than to be sought for.

21. To desire, therefore, that the civil power should enter arbitrarily into the privacy of homes is a great and pernicious error. If a family perchance is in such extreme difficulty and is so completely without plans that it is entirely unable to help itself, it is right that the distress by remedied by public aid, for each individual family is a part of the community. Similarly, if anywhere there is a grave violation of mutual rights within the family walls, public authority shall restore to each his right; for this is not usurping the rights of citizens, but protecting and confirming them with just and due care. Those in charge of public affairs, however, must stop here; nature does not permit them to go beyond these limits. Paternal authority is such that it can be neither abolished nor absorbed by the State, because it has the same origin in common with that of man’s own life. “Children are a part of their father,” and, as it were, a kind of extension of the father’s person; and, strictly speaking, not through themselves, but through the medium of the family society in which they are begotten, they enter into the participate in civil society. And for the very reason that children “are by nature part of their father . . . before they have the use of free will, they are kept under the care of their parents.” [3] Inasmuch as the Socialists, therefore, disregard care by parents and in its place introduce care by the State, they actagainst natural justice and dissolve the structure of the home.

22. And apart from the injustice involved, it is only too evident what turmoil and disorder would obtain among all classes; and what a harsh and odious enslavement of citizens would result! The door would be open to mutual envy, detraction, and dissension. If incentives to ingenuity and skill in individual persons were to be abolished, the very fountains of wealth would necessarily dry up; and the equality conjured up by the Socialist imagination would, in reality, be nothing but uniform wretchedness and meanness for one and all, without distinction.

23. From all these conversations, it is perceived that the fundamental principle of Socialism which would make all possessions public property is to be utterly rejected because it injures the very ones whom it seeks to help, contravenes the natural rights of individual persons, and throws the functions of the State and public peace into confusion. Let it be regarded, therefore, as established that in seeking help for the masses this principle before all is to be considered as basic, namely, that private ownership must be preserved inviolate. With this understood, we shall explain whence the desired remedy is to be sought.

24. We approach the subject with confidence and surely by Our right, for the question under consideration is certainly one for which no satisfactory solution will be found unless religion and the Church have been called upon to aid. Moreover, since the safeguarding of religion and of all things within the jurisdiction of the Church is primarily Our stewardship, silence on Our part might be regarded as failure in Our duty.

25. Assuredly, a question as formidable as this requires the attention and effort of others as well, namely, the heads of the State, employers and the rich, and finally, those in whose behalf efforts are being made, the workers themselves. Yet without hesitation We affirm that if the Church is disregarded, human striving will be in vain. Manifestly, it is the Church which draws from the Gospel the teachings through which the struggle can be composed entirely, or, after its bitterness is removed, can certainly become more tempered. It is the Church, again, that strives not only to instruct the mind but to regulate by her precepts the life and morals of individuals, that ameliorates the condition of the workers through her numerous and beneficent institutions, and that wishes and aims to have the thought and energy of all classes of society united to this end, that the interests of the workers be protected as fully as possible. And to accomplish this purpose she holds that the laws and the authority of the State, within reasonable limits, ought to be employed.

26. Therefore, let it be laid down in the first place that a condition of human existence must be borne with, namely, that in civil society the lowest cannot be made equal to the highest. Socialists, of course, agitate the contrary, but all struggling against nature is vain. There are truly very great and very many natural differences among men. Neither the talents, nor the skill, nor the health, nor the capacities of all are the same, and unequal fortune follows of itself upon necessary inequality in respect to these endowments. And clearly this condition of things is adapted to benefit both individuals and the community; for to carry on its affairs community life requires varied aptitudes and diverse services, and to perform these diverse services men are impelled most by differences in individual property holdings.

27. So far as bodily labor is concerned, man even before the Fall was not destined to be wholly idle; but certainly what his will at that time would have freely embraced to his soul’s delight, necessity afterwards forced him to accept, with a feeling of irksomeness, for the expiation of his guilt. “Cursed be the earth in thy work: in thy labor thou shalt eat of it all the days of thy life.” [4] Likewise there is to be no end on earth of other hardships, for the evil consequences of sin are hard, trying, and bitter to bear, and will necessarily accompany men even to the end of life. Therefore, to suffer and endure is human, and although men may strive in all possible ways, they will never be able by any power or art wholly to banish such tribulations from human life. If any claim they can do this, if they promise the poor in their misery a life free from all sorrow and vexation and filled with repose and perpetual pleasures, they actually impose upon these people and perpetuate a fraud which will ultimately lead to evils greater than the present. The best course is to view human affairs as they are and, as We have stated, at the same time to seek appropriate relief for these troubles elsewhere.

28. It is a capital evil with respect to the question We are discussing to take for granted that the one class of society is of itself hostile to the other, as if nature had set rich and poor against each other to fight fiercely in implacable war. This is so abhorrent to reason and truth that the exact opposite is true; for just as in the human body the different members harmonize with one another, whence arises that disposition of parts and proportion in the human figure rightly called symmetry, so likewise nature has commanded in the case of the State that the two classes mentioned should agree harmoniously and should properly form equally balanced counterparts to each other. Each needs the other completely: neither capital can do without labor, nor labor without capital. Concord begets beauty and order in things. Conversely, from perpetual strife there must arise disorder accompanied by bestial cruelty. But for putting an end to conflict and for cutting away its very roots, there is wondrous and multiple power in Christian institutions.

29. And first and foremost, the entire body of religious teaching and practice, of which the Church is interpreter and guardian, can preeminently bring together and unite the rich and the poor by recalling the two classes of society to their mutual duties, and in particular to those duties which derive from justice.

30. Among these duties the following concern the poor and the workers: To perform entirely and conscientiously whatever work has been voluntarily and equitably agreed upon; not in any way to injure the property or to harm the person of employers; in protecting their own interests, to refrain from violence and never to engage in rioting; not to associate with vicious men who craftily hold out exaggerated hopes and make huge promises, a course usually ending in vain regrets and in the destruction of wealth.

31. The following duties, on the other hand, concern rich men and employers: Workers are not to be treated as slaves; justice demands that the dignity of human personality be respected in them, ennobled as it has been through what we call the Christian character. If we hearken to natural reason and to Christian philosophy, gainful occupations are not a mark of shame to man, but rather of respect, as they provide him with an honorable means of supporting life. It is shameful and inhuman, however, to use men as things for gain and to put no more value on them than what they are worth in muscle and energy. Likewise it is enjoined that the religious interests and the spiritual well-being of the workers receive proper consideration. Wherefore, it is the duty of employers to see that the worker is free for adequate periods to attend to his religious obligations; not to expose anyone to corrupting influences or the enticements of sin, and in no way to alienate him from care for his family and the practice of thrift. Likewise, more work is not to be imposed than strength can endure, nor that kind of work which is unsuited to a worker’s age or sex.

32. Among the most important duties of employers the principal one is to give every worker what is justly due him. Assuredly, to establish a rule of pay in accord with justice, many factors must be taken into account. But, in general, the rich and employers must remember that no laws, either human or divine, permit them for their own profit to oppress the needy and the wretched or to seek gain from another’s want. To defraud anyone of the wage due him is a great crime that calls down avenging wrath from Heaven, “Behold, the wages of the laborers . . . which have been kept back by you unjustly, cry out: and their cry has entered into the ears of the Lord of Hosts.” [5] Finally, the rich must religiously avoid harming in any way the savings of the workers either by coercion, or by fraud, or by the arts of usury; and the more for this reason, that the workers are not sufficiently protected against injustices and violence, and their property, being so meager, ought to be regarded as all the more sacred. Could not the observance alone of the foregoing laws remove the bitterness and the causes of the conflict?

33. But the Church, with Jesus Christ as her teacher and leader, seeks greater things than this; namely, by commanding something more perfect, she aims at joining the two social classes to each other in closest neighborliness and friendship. We cannot understand and evaluate mortal things rightly unless the mind reflects upon the other life, the life which is immortal. If this other life indeed were taken away, the form and true notion of the right would immediately perish; nay, this entire world would become an enigma insoluble to man. Therefore, what we learn from nature itself as our teacher is also a Christian dogma and on it the whole system and structure of religion rests, as it were, on its main foundation; namely, that, when we have left this life, only then shall we truly begin to live. God has not created man for the fragile and transitory things of this world, but for Heaven and eternity, and He has ordained this earth as a place of exile, not as our permanent home. Whether you abound in, or whether you lack, riches, and all the other things which are called good, is of no importance in relation to eternal happiness. But how you use them, that is truly of utmost importance. Jesus Christ by His “plentiful redemption” has by no means taken away the various tribulations with which mortal life is interwoven, but has so clearly transformed them into incentives in virtue and sources of merit that no mortal can attain eternal reward unless he follows the bloodstained footsteps of Jesus Christ. “If we endure, we shall also reign with Him.” [6] By the labors and suffering which He voluntarily accepted, He has wondrously lightened the burden of suffering and labor, and not only by His example but also by His grace and by holding before us the hope of eternal reward. He has made endurance of sorrows easier: “for our present light affliction, which is for the moment, prepares us for an eternal weight of glory that is beyond all measure.” [7]

34. Therefore, the well-to-do are admonished that wealth does not give surcease of sorrow, and that wealth is of no avail unto the happiness of eternal life but is rather a hindrance; [8] that the threats [9] pronounced by Jesus Christ, so unusual coming from Him, ought to cause the rich to fear; and that on one day the strictest account for the use of wealth must be rendered to God as Judge.

35. On the use of wealth we have the excellent and extremely weighty teaching, which, although found in a rudimentary stage in pagan philosophy, the Church has handed down in a completely developed form and causes to be observed not only in theory but in everyday life. The foundation of this teaching rests on this, that the just ownership of money is distinct from the just use of money.

36. To own goods privately, as We saw above, is a right natural to man, and to exercise this right, especially in life in society, is not only lawful, but clearly necessary. “It is lawful for man to own his own things. It is even necessary for human life.” [10] But if the question be asked: How ought man to use his possessions? the Church replies without hesitation: “As to this point, man ought not regard external goods as his own, but as common so that, in fact, a person should readily share them when he sees others in need. Wherefore the Apostle says: ‘Charge the rich of this world . . . to give readily, to share with others’.” [11] No one, certainly, is obliged to assist others out of what is required for his own necessary use or for that of his family, or even to give to others what he himself needs to maintain his station in life becomingly and decently: “No one is obliged to live unbecomingly.” [12] But when the demands of necessity and propriety have been met, it is a duty to give to the poor out of that which remains. “Give that which remains as alms.” [13] These are duties not of justice, except in cases of extreme need, but of Christian charity, which obviously cannot be enforced by legal action. But the laws and judgments of men yield precedence to the law and judgment of Christ the Lord, Who in many ways urges the practice of almsgiving: “It is more blessed to give than to receive,” [14] and Who will judge a kindness done or denied to the poor as done or denied to Himself, “As long as you did it for one of these, the least of My brethren, you did it for Me.” [15] The substance of all this is the following: whoever has received from the bounty of God a greater share of goods, whether corporeal and external, or of the soul, has received them for this purpose, namely, that he employ them for his own perfection and, likewise, as a servant of Divine Providence, for the benefit of others. “Therefore, he that hath talent, let him constantly see to it that he be not silent; he that hath an abundance of goods, let him be on the watch that he grow not slothful in the generosity of mercy; he that hath a trade whereby he supports himself, let him be especially eager to share with his neighbor the use and benefit thereof.” [16]

37. Those who lack fortune’s goods are taught by the Church that, before God as judge, poverty is no disgrace, and that no one should be ashamed because he makes his living by toil. And Jesus Christ has confirmed this by fact and by deed, Who for the salvation of men, “being rich, became poor;” [17] and although He was the Son of God and God Himself, yet He willed to seem and to be thought the son of a carpenter; nay, He even did not disdain to spend a great part of his life at the work of a carpenter. “Is not this the carpenter, the Son of Mary?” [18] Those who contemplate this Divine example will more easily understand these truths: True dignity and excellence in men resides in moral living, that is, in virtue; virtue is the common inheritance of man, attainable equally by the humblest and the mightiest, by the rich and the poor; and the reward of eternal happiness will follow upon virtue and merit alone, regardless of the person in whom they may be found. Nay, rather the favor of God Himself seems to incline more toward the unfortunate as a class; for Jesus Christ calls the poor [19] blessed, and He invites most lovingly all who are in labor or sorrow [20] to come to Him for solace, embracing with special love the lowly and those harassed by injustice. At the realization of these things the proud spirit of the rich is easily brought down, and the downcast heart of the afflicted is lifted up; the former are moved toward kindness, the latter toward reasonableness in their demands. Thus the distance between the classes which pride seeks is seduced, and it will easily be brought to pass that the two classes, with hands clasped in friendship, will be united in heart.

38. Yet, if they obey Christian teachings, not merely friendship but brotherly love also will bind them to each other. They will feel and understand that all men indeed have been created by God, their common Father; that all strive for the same object of good, which is God Himself, Who alone can communicate to both men and angels perfect and absolute happiness; that all equally have been redeemed by the grace of Jesus Christ and restored to the dignity of the sons of God, so that they are clearly united by the bonds of brotherhood not only with one another but also with Christ the Lord, “the first-born among many brethren,” [21] and further, that the goods of nature and the gifts of divine grace belong in common and without distinction to all human kind, and that no one, unless he is unworthy, will be deprived of the inheritance of Heaven. “But if we are sons, we are also heirs: heirs indeed of God and joint heirs with Christ.” [22]

39. Such is the economy of duties and rights according to Christian philosophy. Would it not seem that all conflict would soon cease wherever this economy were to prevail in civil society?

40. Finally, the Church does not consider it enough to point out the way of finding the cure, but she administers the remedy herself. For she occupies herself fully in training and forming men according to discipline and doctrine; and through the agency of bishops and clergy, she causes the health-giving streams of this doctrine to be diffused as widely as possible. Furthermore, she strives to enter into men’s minds and to bend their wills so that they may suffer themselves to be ruled and governed by the discipline of divine precepts. And in this field, which is of first and greatest importance because in it the whole substance and matter of benefits consists, the Church indeed has a power that is especially unique. For the instruments which she uses to move souls were given her for this very purpose by Jesus Christ, and they have an efficacy implanted in them by God. Such instruments alone can properly penetrate the inner recesses of the heart and lead man to obedience to duty, to govern the activities of his self-seeking mind, to love God and his neighbors with a special and sovereign love, and to overcome courageously all things that impede the path of virtue.

41. In this connection it is sufficient briefly to recall to mind examples from history. We shall mention events and facts that admit of no doubt, namely, that human society in its civil aspects was renewed fundamentally by Christian institutions; that, by virtue of this renewal, mankind was raised to a higher level, nay, was called back from death to life, and enriched with such a degree of perfection as has never existed before and was not destined to be greater in any succeeding age; and that, finally, the same Jesus Christ is the beginning and end of these benefits; for as all things have proceeded from Him, so they must be referred back to Him. When, with the acceptance of the light of the Gospel, the world had learned the great mystery of the Incarnation of the Word and the redemption of man, the life of Jesus Christ, God and man, spread through the nations and imbued them wholly with His doctrine, with His precepts, and with His laws. Wherefore, if human society is to be healed, only a return to Christian life and institutions will heal it. In the case of decaying societies it is most correctly prescribed that, if they wish to be regenerated, they must be recalled to their origins. For the perfection of all associations is this, namely, to work for and to attain the purpose for which they were formed, so that all social actions should be inspired by the same principle which brought the society itself into being. Wherefore, turning away from the original purpose is corruption, while going back to this discovery is recovery. And just as we affirm this as unquestionably true of the entire body of the commonwealth, in like manner we affirm it of that order of citizens who sustain life by labor and who constitute the vast majority of society.

42. But it must not be supposed that the Church so concentrates her energies on caring for souls as to overlook things which pertain to mortal and earthly life. As regards the non-owning workers specifically, she desires and strives that they rise from their most wretched state and enjoy better conditions. And to achieve this result she makes no small contribution by the very fact that she calls men to and trains them in virtue. For when Christian morals are completely observed, they yield of themselves a certain measure of prosperity to material existence, because they win the favor of God, the source and fountain of all goods; because they restrain the twin plagues of life — excessive desire for wealth and thirst [23] for pleasure — which too often make man wretched amidst the very abundance of riches; and because finally, Christian morals make men content with a moderate livelihood and make them supplement income by thrift, removing them far from the vices which swallow up both modest sums and huge fortunes, and dissipate splendid inheritances.

43. But, in addition, the Church provides directly for the well-being of the non-owning workers by instituting and promoting activities which she knows to be suitable to relieve their distress. Nay, even in the field of works of mercy, she has always so excelled that she is highly praised by her very enemies. The force of mutual charity among the first Christians was such that the wealthier ones very often divested themselves of their riches to aid others; wherefore, “Nor was there anyone among them in want.” [24] To the deacons, an order founded expressly for this purpose, the Apostles assigned the duty of dispensing alms daily; and the Apostle Paul, although burdened with the care of all the churches, did not hesitate to spend himself on toilsome journeys in order to bring alms personally to the poorer Christians. Moneys of this kind, contributed voluntarily by the Christians in every assembly, Tertullian calls “piety’s deposit fund,” because they were expended to “support and bury poor people, to supply the wants of orphan boys and girls without means of support, of aged household servants, and of such, too, as had suffered shipwreck.” [25]

44. Thence, gradually there came into existence that patrimony which the Church has guarded with religious care as the property of the poor. Nay, even disregarding the feeling of shame associated with begging, she provided aid for the wretched poor. For, as the common parent of rich and poor, with charity everywhere stimulated to the highest degree, she founded religious societies and numerous other useful bodies, so that, with the aid which these furnished, there was scarcely any form of human misery that went uncared for.

45. And yet many today go so far as to condemn the Church as the ancient pagans once did, for such outstanding charity, and would substitute in lieu thereof a system of benevolence established by the laws of the State. But no human devices can ever be found to supplant Christian charity, which gives itself entirely for the benefit of others. This virtue belongs to the Church alone, for, unless it is derived from the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, it is in no wise a virtue; and whosoever departs from the Church wanders far from Christ.

46. But there can be no question that, to attain Our purpose, those helps also which are within the power of men are necessary. Absolutely all who are concerned with the matter must, according to their capacity, bend their efforts to this same end and work for it. And this activity has a certain likeness to Divine Providence governing the world; for generally we see effects flow from the concert of all the elements upon which as causes these effects depend.

47. But it is now in order to inquire what portion of the remedy should be expected from the State. By State here We understand not the form of government which this or that people has, but rather that form which right reason in accordance with nature requires and the teachings of Divine wisdom approve, matters that We have explained specifically in our Encyclical “On the Christian Constitution of States.”

48. Therefore those governing the State ought primarily to devote themselves to the service of individual groups and of the whole commonwealth, and through the entire scheme of laws and institutions to cause both public and individual well-being to develop spontaneously out of the very structure and administration of the State. For this is the duty of wise statesmanship and the essential office of those in charge of the State. Now, States are made prosperous especially by wholesome morality, properly ordered family life, protection of religion and justice, moderate imposition and equitable distribution of public burdens, progressive development of industry and trade, thriving agriculture, and by all other things of this nature, which the more actively they are promoted, the better and happier the life of the citizens is destined to be. Therefore, by virtue of these things, it is within the competence of the rulers of the State that, as they benefit other groups, they also improve in particular the condition of the workers. Furthermore, they do this with full right and without laying themselves open to any charge of unwarranted interference. For the State is bound by the very law of its office to serve the common interest. And the richer the benefits which come from this general providence on the part of the State, the less necessary it will be to experiment with other measures for the well-being of workers.

49. This ought to be considered, as it touches the question more deeply, namely, that the State has one basic purpose for existence, which embraces in common the highest and the lowest of its members. Non-owning workers are unquestionably citizens by nature in virtue of the same right as the rich, that is, true and vital parts whence, through the medium of families, the body of the State is constituted; and it hardly need be added that they are by far the greatest number in every urban area. Since it would be quite absurd to look out for one portion of the citizens and to neglect another, it follows that public authority ought to exercise due care in safeguarding the well-being and the interests of non-owning workers. Unless this is done, justice, which commands that everyone be given his own, will be violated. Wherefore St. Thomas says wisely: “Even as part and whole are in a certain way the same, so too that which pertains to the whole pertains in a certain way to the part also.” [26] Consequently, among the numerous and weighty duties of rulers who would serve their people well, this is first and foremost, namely, that they protect equitably each and every class of citizens, maintaining inviolate that justice especially which is called distributive.

50. Although all citizens, without exception, are obliged to contribute something to the sum-total common goods, some share of which naturally goes back to each individual, yet all can by no means contribute the same amount and in equal degree. Whatever the vicissitudes that occur in the forms of government, there will always be those differences in the condition of citizens without which society could neither exist nor be conceived. It is altogether necessary that there be some who dedicate themselves to the service of the State, who make laws, who dispense justice, and finally, by whose counsel and authority civil and military affairs are administered. These men, as is clear, play the chief role in the Sate, and among every people are to be regarded as occupying first place, because they work for the common good most directly and preeminently. On the other hand, those engaged in some calling benefit the State, but not in the same way as the men just mentioned, nor by performing the same duties; yet they, too, in a high degree, although less directly, serve the common weal. Assuredly, since social good must be of such a character that men through its acquisition are made better, it must necessarily be founded on virtue.

51. Nevertheless, an abundance of corporeal and external goods is likewise a characteristic of a well-constituted State, “the use of which goods is necessary for the practice of virtue.” [27] To produce these goods the labor of the workers, whether they expend their skill and strength on farms or in factories, is most efficacious and necessary. Nay, in this respect, their energy and effectiveness are so important that it is incontestable that the wealth of nations originates from no other source than from the labor of workers. Equity therefore commands that public authority show proper concern for the worker so that from what he contributes to the common good he may receive what will enable him, housed, clothed, and secure, to live his life without hardship. Whence, it follows that all those measures ought to be favored which seem in any way capable of benefiting the condition of workers. Such solicitude is so far from injuring anyone, that it is destined rather to benefit all, because it is of absolute interest to the State that those citizens should not be miserable in every respect from whom such necessary goods proceed.

52. It is not right, as We have said, for either the citizen or the family to be absorbed by the State; it is proper that the individual and the family should be permitted to retain their freedom of action, so far as this is possible without jeopardizing the common good and without injuring anyone. Nevertheless, those who govern must see to it that they protect the community, because nature has entrusted its safeguarding to the sovereign power in the State to such an extent that the protection of the public welfare is not only the supreme law, but is the entire cause and reason for sovereignty; and the constituent parts, because philosophy and Christian faith agree that the administration of the State has from nature as its purpose, not the benefit of those to whom it has been entrusted, but the benefit of those who have been entrusted to it. And since the power of governing comes from God and is a participation, as it were, in His supreme sovereignty, it ought to be administered according to the example of the Divine power, which looks with paternal care to the welfare of individual creatures as well as to that of all creation. If, therefore, any injury has been done to or threatens either the common good or the interests of individual groups, which injury cannot in any other way be repaired or prevented, it is necessary for public authority to intervene.

53. It is vitally important to public as well as to private welfare that there be peace and good order; likewise, that the whole regime of family life be directed according to the ordinances of God and the principles of nature, that religion be observed and cultivated, that sound morals flourish in private and public life, that justice be kept sacred and that no one be wronged with impunity by another, and that strong citizens grow up, capable of supporting, and, if necessary, of protecting the State. Wherefore, if at any time disorder should threaten because of strikes or concerted stoppages of work, if the natural bonds of family life should be relaxed among the poor, if religion among the workers should be outraged by failure to provide sufficient opportunity for performing religious duties, if in factories danger should assail the integrity of morals through the mixing of the sexes or other pernicious incitements to sin, or if the employer class should oppress the working class with unjust burdens or should degrade them with conditions inimical to human personality or to human dignity, if health should be injured by immoderate work and such as is not suited to sex or age — in all these cases, the power and authority of the law, but of course within certain limits, manifestly ought to be employed. And these limits are determined by the same reason which demands the aid of the law, that is, the law ought not to undertake more, nor it go farther, than the remedy of evils or the removal of danger requires.

54. Rights indeed, by whomsoever possessed, must be religiously protected; and public authority, in warding off injuries and punishing wrongs, ought to see to it that individuals may have and hold what belongs to them. In protecting the rights of private individuals, however, special consideration must be given to the weak and the poor. For the nation, as it were, of the rich, is guarded by its own defenses and is in less need of governmental protection, whereas the suffering multitude, without the means to protect itself, relies especially on the protection of the State. Wherefore, since wage workers are numbered among the great mass of the needy, the State must include them under its special care and foresight.

55. But it will be well to touch here expressly on certain matters of special importance. The capital point is this, that private property ought to be safeguarded by the sovereign power of the State and through the bulwark of its laws. And especially, in view of such a great flaming up of passion at the present time, the masses ought to be kept within the bounds of their moral obligations. For while justice does not oppose our striving for better things, on the other hand, it does forbid anyone to take from another what is his and, in the name of a certain absurd equality, to seize forcibly the property of others; nor does the interest of the common good itself permit this. Certainly, the great majority of working people prefer to secure better conditions by honest toil, without doing wrong to anyone. Nevertheless, not a few individuals are found who, imbued with evil ideas and eager for revolution, use every means to stir up disorder and incite to violence. The authority of the State, therefore, should intervene and, by putting restraint upon such disturbers, protect the morals of workers from their corrupting arts and lawful owners from the danger of spoliation.

56. Labor which is too long and too hard and the belief that pay is inadequate not infrequently give workers cause to strike and become voluntarily idle. This evil, which is frequent and serious, ought to be remedied by public authority, because such interruption of work inflicts damage not only upon employers and upon the workers themselves, but also injures trade and commerce and the general interests of the State; and, since it is usually not far removed from violence and rioting, it very frequently jeopardizes public peace. In this matter it is more effective and salutary that the authority of the law anticipate and completely prevent the evil from breaking out by removing early the causes from which it would seem that conflict between employers and workers is bound to arise.

57. And in like manner, in the case of the worker, there are many things which the power of the State should protect; and, first of all, the goods of his soul. For however good and desirable mortal life be, yet it is not the ultimate goal for which we are born, but a road only and a means for perfecting, through knowledge of truth and love of good, the life of the soul. The soul bears the express image and likeness of God, and there resides in it that sovereignty through the medium of which man has been bidden to rule all created nature below him and to make all lands and all seas serve his interests. “Fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fishes of the sea and the fowls of the earth.” [28] In this respect all men are equal, and there is no difference between rich and poor, between masters and servants, between rulers and subjects: “For there is the same Lord of all.” [29] No one may with impunity outrage the dignity of man, which God Himself treats with great reverence, nor impede his course to that level of perfection which accords with eternal life in heaven. Nay, more, in this connection a man cannot even by his own free choice allow himself to be treated in a way inconsistent with his nature, and suffer his soul to be enslaved; for there is no question here of rights belonging to man, but of duties owed to God, which are to be religiously observed.

58. Hence follows necessary cessation from toil and work on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation. Let no one, however, understand this in the sense of greater indulgence of idle leisure, and much less in the sense of that kind of cessation from work, such as many desire, which encourages vice and promotes wasteful spending of money, but solely in the sense of a repose from labor made sacred by religion. Rest combined with religion calls man away from toil and the business of daily life to admonish him to ponder on heavenly goods and to pay his just and due homage to the Eternal Deity. This is especially the nature, and this the cause, of the rest to be taken on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, and God has sanctioned the same in the Old Testament by a special law: “Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath Day,” [30] and He Himself taught it by His own action; namely the mystical rest taken immediately after He had created man: “He hath rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done.” [31]

59. Now as concerns the protection of corporeal and physical goods, the oppressed workers, above all, ought to be liberated from the savagery of greedy men, who inordinately use human beings as things for gain. Assuredly, neither justice nor humanity can countenance the exaction of so much work that the spirit is dulled from excessive toil and that along with it the body sinks crushed from exhaustion. The working energy of a man, like his entire nature, is circumscribed by definite limits beyond which it cannot go. It is developed indeed by exercise and use, but only on condition that a man cease from work at regular intervals and rest. With respect to daily work, therefore, care ought to be taken not to extend it beyond the hours that human strength warrants. The length of rest intervals ought to be decided on the basis of the varying nature of the work, of the circumstances of time and place, and of the physical condition of the workers themselves. Since the labor of those who quarry stone from the earth, or who mine iron, copper, or other underground materials, is much more severe and harmful to health, the working period for such men ought to be correspondingly shortened. The seasons of the year also must be taken into account; for often a given kind of work is easy to endure in one season but cannot be endured at all in another, or not without the greatest difficulty.

60. Finally, it is not right to demand of a woman or a child what a strong adult man is capable of doing or would be willing to do. Nay, as regards children, special care ought to be taken that the factory does not get hold of them before age has sufficiently matured their physical, intellectual, and moral powers. For budding strength in childhood, like greening verdure in spring, is crushed by premature harsh treatment; and under such circumstances all education of the child must needs be foregone. Certain occupations, likewise, are less fitted for women, who are intended by nature for work of the home — work indeed which especially protects modesty in women and accords by nature with the education of children and the well-being of the family. Let it be the rule everywhere that workers be given as much leisure as will compensate for the energy consumed by toil, for rest from work is necessary to restore strength consumed by use. In every obligation which is mutually contracted between employers and workers, this condition, either written or tacit, is always present, that both kinds of rest be provided for; nor would it be equitable to make an agreement otherwise, because no one has the right to demand of, or to make an agreement with anyone to neglect those duties which bind a man to God or to himself.

61. We shall now touch upon a matter of very great importance, and one which must be correctly understood in order to avoid falling into error on one side or the other. We are told that free consent fixes the amount of a wage; that therefore the employer, after paying the wage agreed to would seem to have discharged his obligation and not to owe anything more; that only then would injustice be done if either the employer should refuse to pay the whole amount of the wage, or the worker should refuse to perform all the work to which he had committed himself; and that in those cases, but in no others, is it proper for the public authority to safeguard the rights of each party.

62. An impartial judge would not assent readily or without reservation to this reasoning, because it is not complete in all respects; one factor to be considered, and one of the greatest importance, is missing. To work is to expend one’s energy for the purpose of securing the things necessary for the various needs of life and especially for its preservation. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread.” [32] Accordingly, in man sweat labor has two marks, as it were, implanted by nature, so that it is truly personal, because work energy inheres in the person and belongs completely to him by whom it is expended, and for whose use it is destined by nature; and secondly, that it is necessary, because man has need of the fruit of his labors to preserve his life, and nature itself, which must be most strictly obeyed, commands him to preserve it. If labor should be considered only under the aspect that it is personal, there is no doubt that it would be entirely in the worker’s power to set the amount of the agreed wage at too low a figure. For inasmuch as he performs work by his own free will, he can also by his own free will be satisfied with either a paltry wage for his work or even with none at all. But this matter must be judged far differently, if with the factor of personality we combine the factor of necessity, from which indeed the former is separable in thought but not in reality. In fact, to preserve one’s life is a duty common to all individuals, and to neglect this duty is a crime. Hence arises necessarily the right of securing things to sustain life, and only a wage earned by his labor gives a poor man the means to acquire these things.

63. Let it be granted then that worker and employer may enter freely into agreements and, in particular, concerning the amount of the wage; yet there is always underlying such agreements an element of natural justice, and one greater and more ancient than the free consent of contracting parties, namely, that the wage shall not be less than enough to support a worker who is thrifty and upright. If, compelled by necessity or moved by fear of a worse evil, a worker accepts a harder condition, which although against his will he must accept because an employer or contractor imposes it, he certainly submits to force, against which justice cries out in protest.

64. But in these and similar questions, such as the number of hours of work in each kind of occupation and the health safeguards to be provided, particularly in factories, it will be better, in order to avoid unwarranted governmental intervention, especially since circumstances of business, season, and place are so varied, that decision be reserved to the organizations of which We are about to speak below, or else to pursue another course whereby the interests of the workers may be adequately safeguarded — the State, if the occasion demands, to furnish help and protection.

65. If a worker receives a wage sufficiently large to enable him to provide comfortably for himself, his wife and his children, he will, if prudent, gladly strive to practice thrift; and the result will be, as nature itself seems to counsel, that after expenditures are deducted there will remain something over and above through which he can come into the possession of a little wealth. We have seen, in fact, that the whole question under consideration cannot be settled effectually unless it is assumed and established as a principle, that the right of private property must be regarded as sacred. Wherefore, the law ought to favor this right and, so far as it can, see that the largest possible number among the masses of the population prefer to own property.

66. If this is done, excellent benefits will follow, foremost among which will surely be a more equitable division of goods. For the violence of public disorder has divided cities into two classes of citizens, with an immense gulf lying between them. ON the one side is a faction exceedingly powerful because exceedingly rich. Since it alone has under its control every kind of work and business, it diverts to its own advantage and interest all production sources of wealth and exerts no little power in the administration itself [sic] of the State. On the other side are the needy and helpless masses, with minds inflamed and always ready for disorder. But if the productive activity of the multitude can be stimulated by the hope of acquiring some property in land, it will gradually come to pass that, with the difference between extreme wealth and extreme penury removed, one class will become neighbor to the other. Moreover, there will surely be a greater abundance of the things which the earth produces. For when men know they are working on what belongs to them, they work with far greater eagerness and diligence. Nay, in a word, they learn to love the land cultivated by their own hands, whence they look not only for food but for some measure of abundance for themselves and their dependents. All can see how much this willing eagerness contributes to an abundance of produce and the wealth of a nation. Hence, in the third place, will flow the benefit that men can easily be kept from leaving the country in which they have been born and bred; for they would not exchange their native country for a foreign land if their native country furnished them sufficient means of living.

67. But these advantages can be attained only if private wealth is not drained away by crushing taxes of every kind. For since the right of possessing goods privately has been conferred not by man’s law, but by nature, public authority cannot abolish it, but can only control its exercise and bring it into conformity with the commonweal. Public authority therefore would act unjustly and inhumanly, if in the name of taxes it should appropriate from the property of private individuals more than is equitable.

68. Finally, employers and workers themselves can accomplish much in this matter, manifestly through those institutions by the help of which the poor are opportunely assisted and the two classes of society are brought closer to each other. Under this category come associations for giving mutual aid; various agencies established by the foresight of private persons to care for the worker and likewise for his dependent wife and children in the event that an accident, sickness, or death befalls him; and foundations to care for boys and girls, for adolescents, and for the aged.

69. But associations of workers occupy first place, and they include within their circle clearly all the rest. The beneficent achievements of the guilds of artisans among our ancestors have long been well known. Truly, they yielded noteworthy advantages not only to artisans, but, as many monuments bear witness, brought glory and progress to the arts themselves. In our present age of greater culture, with its new customs and ways of living, and with the increased number of things required by daily life, it is most clearly necessary that workers’ associations be adapted to meet the present need. It is gratifying that societies of this kind composed either of workers alone or of workers and employers together are being formed everywhere, and it is truly to be desired that they grow in number and in active vigor. Although We have spoken of them more than once, it seems well to show in this place that they are highly opportune and are formed by their own right, and, likewise to show how they should be organized and what they should do.

70. Inadequacy of his own strength, learned from experience, impels and urges a man to enlist the help of others. Such is the teaching of Holy Scripture: “It is better therefore that two should be together than one; for they have the advantage of their society. If one fall he shall be supported by the other; woe to him that is alone, for when he falleth he hath none to lift him up.” [33] And this also: “A brother that is helped by his brother, is like a strong city.” [34] Just as man is drawn by this natural propensity into civil union and association, so he also seeks with his fellow citizens to form other societies, admittedly small and not perfect, but societies none the less.

71. Between these latter and the large society of the State, there is, because of their different immediate purposes, a very great distinction. The end of civil society concerns absolutely all members of this society, since the end of civil society is centered in the common good, in which latter, one and all in due proportion have a right to participate. Wherefore, this society is called public, because through it “all men share with one another in establishing a commonwealth.” [35] On the other hand, societies which are formed, so to speak, within its bosom are consideredprivate and are such because their immediate object is private advantage, appertaining to those alone who are thus associated together. “Now a private society is one which is formed to carry out some business, as when two or three enter into association for the purpose of engaging together in trade.” [36]

72. Although private societies exist within the State and are, as it were, so many parts of it, still it is not within the authority of the State universally and per se to forbid them to exist as such. For man is permitted by a right of nature to form private societies; the State, on the other hand, has been instituted to protect and not to destroy natural right, and if it should forbid its citizens to enter into associations, it would clearly do something contradictory to itself because both the State itself and private associations are begotten of one and the same principle, namely, that men are by nature inclined to associate. Occasionally, there are times when it is proper for the laws to oppose associations of this kind, that is, if they professedly seek after any objective which is clearly at variance with good morals, with justice, or with the welfare of the State. Indeed, in these cases the public power shall justly prevent such associations from forming and shall also justly dissolve those already formed. Nevertheless, it must use the greatest precaution lest it appear to infringe on the rights of its citizens, and lest, under the pretext of public benefit it enact any measure that sound reason would not support. For laws are to be obeyed only insofar as they conform with right reason and thus with the eternal law of God. [37]

73. Here come to Our mind for consideration the various confraternities, societies, and religious orders which the authority of the Church and the piety of Christians have brought into being; and history down to our own times speaks of the wonderful benefit they have been to the human race. Since societies of this character, even if judged in the light of reason alone, have been formed for an honest purpose, it is clear that they have been formed in accordance with natural right. But in whatever respect they concern religion, they are properly subject to the Church alone. Therefore those in charge of the State cannot in justice abrogate to themselves any right over them or assume their administration to themselves. Rather it is the office of the State to respect, to conserve, and as occasion may require, to protect them from injustice. Yet we have seen something entirely different being done, especially at the present time. In many places the State has violated associations of this kind, and in fact with manifold injury, since it has put them in the bonds of the civil law, has divested them of their lawful right to be considered legal persons, and has robbed them of their property. In this property the Church possessed her rights, and individual association members possessed theirs, as did also the persons who donated this property for a designated purpose as well as those for whose benefit and relief it had been donated. Consequently, We cannot refrain from deploring such vicious and unjust acts of robbery, and so much the more because We see the road being closed to Catholic associations, which are law-abiding and in every respect useful, at the very time when it is being decreed that most assuredly men are permitted by law to form associations, and at the very time when this freedom is being lavishly granted in actual fact to men urging courses of conduct pernicious at once to religion and to the State.

74. Certainly, the number of associations of almost every possible kind, especially of associations of workers, is now far greater than ever before. This is not the place to inquire whence many of them originate, what object they have, or how they proceed. But the opinion is, and it is one confirmed by a good deal of evidence, that they are largely under the control of secret leaders and that these leaders apply principles which are in harmony neither with Christianity nor with the welfare of States, and that, after having possession of all available work, they contrive that those who refuse to join with them will be forced by want to pay the penalty. Under these circumstances, workers who are Christians must choose one of two things; either to join associations in which it is greatly to be feared that there is danger to religion, or to form their own associations and unite their forces in such a way that they may be able manfully to free themselves from such unjust and intolerable opposition. Can they who refuse to place man’s highest good in imminent jeopardy hesitate to affirm that the second course is by all means to be followed?

75. Many of our Faith are indeed to be highly commended, who, having rightly perceived what the times require of them, are experimenting and striving to discover how by honest means they can raise the non-owning working class to higher living levels. They have championed their cause and are endeavoring to increase the prosperity of both families and individuals, and at the same time to regulate justly the mutual obligations which rest upon workers and employers and to foster and strengthen in both consciousness of duty and observance of the precepts of the Gospel — precepts, in truth, which hold man back from excess and prevent him from overstepping the bounds of moderation and, in the midst of the widest divergences among persons and things, maintain harmony in the State. For this reason, we see eminent men meeting together frequently to exchange ideas, to combine their forces, and to deliberate on the most expedient programs of action. Others are endeavoring to unite the various kinds of workers in suitable associations, are assisting them with advice and money, and making plans to prevent a lack of honest and profitable work. The bishops are giving encouragement and bestowing support; and under their authority and auspices many from the ranks of the clergy, both regular and diocesan, are showing zealous care for all that pertains to the spiritual improvement of the members of these associations. Finally, there are not wanting Catholics of great wealth, yet voluntary sharers, as it were, in the lot of the wage workers, who by their own generous contributions are striving to found and extend associations through which the worker is readily enabled to obtain from his toil not only immediate benefits, but also assurance of honorable retirement in the future. How much good such manifold and enthusiastic activity has contributed to the benefit of all this is too well known to make discussion necessary. From all this, We have taken auguries of good hope for the future, provided that societies of this kind continually grow and that they are founded with wise organization. Let the State protect these lawfully associated bodies of citizens; let it not, however, interfere with their private concerns and order of life; for vital activity is set in motion by an inner principle, and it is very easily destroyed, as We know, by intrusion from without.

76. Unquestionably, wise direction and organization are essential to these associations in order that in their activities there be unity of purpose and concord of wills. Furthermore, if citizens have the free right to associate, as in fact they do, they must also have the right freely to adopt the organization and rules which they judge most appropriate to achieve their purpose. We do not feel that the precise character in all details which the aforementioned direction and organization of associations ought to have can be determined by fast and fixed rules, since this is a matter to be decided rather in the light of the temperament of each people, of experiment and practice, of the nature and character of the work, of the extent of trade and commerce, and of other circumstances of a material and temporal kind, all of which must be carefully considered. In summary, let this be laid down as a general and constant law: Workers’ associations ought to be so constituted and so governed as to furnish the most suitable and most convenient means to attain the object proposed, which consists in this, that the individual members of the association secure, so far as possible, an increase in the goods of body, of soul, and of prosperity.

77. It is clear, however, that moral and religious perfection ought to be regarded as their principal goal, and that their social organization as such ought above all to be directed completely by this goal. For otherwise, they would degenerate in nature and would be little better than those associations in which no account is ordinarily taken of religion. Besides, what would it profit a worker to secure through an association an abundance of goods, if his soul through lack of its proper food should run the risk of perishing? “What doth it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, but suffer the loss of his own soul?” [38] Christ Our Lord teaches that this in fact must be considered the mark whereby a Christian is distinguished from a pagan: “After all these things the Gentiles seek — seek ye first the kingdom of God and His justice, and all these things shall be given you besides.” [39] Therefore, having taken their principles from God, let those associations provide ample opportunity for religious instruction so that individual members may understand their duties to God, that they may well know what to believe, what to hope for, and what to do for eternal salvation, and that with special care they may be fortified against erroneous opinions and various forms of corruption. Let the worker be exhorted to the worship of God and the pursuit of piety, especially to religious observance of Sundays and Holy Days. Let him learn to reverence and love the Church, the common Mother of all, and likewise to observe her precepts and to frequent her Sacraments, which are the divine means for purifying the soul from the status of sin and for attaining sanctity.

78. When the regulation of associations are founded upon religion, the way is easy toward establishing the mutual relations of the members so that peaceful living together and prosperity will result. Offices in the associations are to be distributed properly in accordance with the common interest, and in such a way, moreover, that wide difference in these offices may not create discord. It is of special importance that obligations be apportioned wisely and be clearly defined, to the end that no one is done an injustice. Let the funds be disbursed equitably in such a way that the amount of benefit to be paid out to members is fixed beforehand in accordance with individual needs, and let the rights and duties of employers be properly adjusted to the rights and duties of workers. If any one in these two groups feels that he has been injured in any way, nothing is more to be desired than that prudent and upright men of the same body be available, and that the association regulations themselves prescribe that the dispute be settled according to the decision of these men.

79. It must also be specially provided that the worker at no time be without sufficient work, and that the moneys paid into the treasury of the association furnish the means of assisting individual members in need, not only during sudden and unforeseen changes in industry, but also whenever anyone is stricken by sickness, by old age, or by misfortune.

80. Through these regulations, provided they are readily accepted, the interests and welfare of the poor will be adequately cared for. Associations of Catholics, moreover, will undoubtedly be of great importance in promoting prosperity in the State. Through past events we can, without temerity, foresee the future. Age presses hard upon age, but there are wondrous similarities in history, governed as it is by the Providence of God. Who guides and directs the continuity and the chain of events in accordance with that purpose which He set before Himself in creating the human race. In the early ages, when the Church was in her youth, We know that the reproach was hurled at the Christians that the great majority of them lived by precarious alms or by toil. Yet, although destitute of wealth and power, they succeeded in winning the good will of the rich and the protection of the mighty. All could see that they were energetic, industrious, peace-loving, and exemplarily devoted to the practice of justice and especially of charity. In the presence of life and conduct such as this, all prejudice vanished, the taunting voices of the malevolent were silenced, and the falsehoods of inveterate superstition yielded little by little to Christian truth.

81. The condition of workers is a subject of bitter controversy at the present time; and whether this controversy is resolved in accordance with reason or otherwise, it is in either event of utmost importance to the State. But Christian workers will readily resolve it in accordance with reason if, united in associations and under wise leaders, they enter upon the path which their fathers and their ancestors followed to their own best welfare as well as to that of the State. For, no matter how strong the power of prejudice and passion in man, yet, unless perversity of will has deadened the sense of the right and just, the good will of citizens is certain to be more freely inclined toward those whom they learn to know as industrious and temperate, and who clearly place justice before profit and conscientious observance of duty before all else. Under those circumstances there will follow also this great advantage, that no little hope and opportunity for developing a sound attitude will be afforded those workers who live in complete disdain of the Christian Faith or in a manner foreign to its profession. These men, indeed, for the most part, know that they have been deceived by illusory hopes and by false appearances. They are conscious of being most inhumanly treated by greedy employers, that almost no greater value is placed on them than the amount of gain they yield by their toil, and that in the associations, moreover, in whose meshes they are caught, there exist in place of charity and love, internal dissensions which are the inseparable companions of aggravating and irreligious poverty. Broken in spirit, and worn out in body, how gladly many would free themselves from a servitude so degrading! Yet they dare not because either human shame or the fear of want prevents them. It is remarkable how much associations of Catholics can contribute to the welfare of all such men if they invite those wavering in uncertainty to their bosom in order to remedy their difficulties, and if they receive the penitents into their trust and protection.

82. These, Venerable Brethren, are the persons, and this is the procedure to be employed in dealing with this most difficult question. Everyone according to his position ought to gird himself for the task, and indeed as speedily as possible, lest, by delaying the remedy, the evil, which is already of vast dimensions, become incurable. Let those in charge of States make use of the provision afforded by laws and institutions; let the rich and employers be mindful of their duties; let the workers, whose cause is at stake, press their claims with reason. And since religion alone, as We said in the beginning, can remove the evil, root and branch, let all reflect upon this: First and foremost Christian morals must be reestablished, without which even the weapons of prudence, which are considered especially effective, will be of no avail, to secure well-being.

83. So far as the Church is concerned, at no time and in no manner will she permit her efforts to be wanting, and she will contribute all the more help in proportion as she has more freedom of action. Let this be understood in particular by those whose duty it is to promote the public welfare. Let the members of the Sacred Ministry exert all their strength of mind and all their diligence, and Venerable Brethren, under the guidance of your authority and example, let them not cease to impress upon men of all ranks the principles of Christian living as found in the Gospel; by all means in their power let them strive for the well-being of people; and especially let them aim both to preserve in themselves and to arouse in others, in the highest equally as well as in the lowest, the mistress and queen of the virtues, Charity. Certainly, the well-being which is so longed for is chiefly to be expected from an abundant outpouring of charity; of Christian charity, we mean, which is in epitome the law of the Gospel, and which, always ready to sacrifice itself for the benefit of others, is man’s surest antidote against the insolence of the world and immoderate love of self; the divine office and features of this virtue being described by the Apostle Paul in these words: “Charity is patient, is kind . . . is not self-seeking . . . bears with all things . . . endures all things.” [40]

84. As a pledge of Divine favor and as a token of Our affection, most lovingly in the Lord We bestow on each of you, Venerable Brethren, on your clergy and on your people, the Apostolic Blessing.

85. Given in Rome, at St. Peter’s, the 15th day of May, in the year 1891, the fourteenth of Our Pontificate.

LEO XIII

1. Deuteronomy 5,21.
2. Genesis 1,28.
3. St. Thomas, “Summa Theologica”, II-II, Q.10, Art. 12.
4. Genesis 3,17.
5. St. James 5,4.
6. 2 Timothy 2,12.
7. 2 Corinthians 4,17.
8. St. Matthew 19, 23, 24.
9. St. Luke 6, 24, 25.
10. St. Thomas, “Summa Theologica”, II-II, Q.66, Art. 2.
11. Ibid., Q.65, Art. 2
12. St. Thomas, “Summa Theologica”, Q.32, Art. 6.
13. St. Luke, 11, 41.
14. Acts 20, 35.
15. St. Matthew 25, 40.
16. St. Gregory the Great, “In Evang. Hom.” 9, 7.
17. 2 Corinthians 8, 9.
18. St. Mark 6, 3.
19. St. Matthew 5, 3.
20. Matthias 11, 28.
21. Romans 8, 29.
22. Romans 8, 17.
23. 1 Timothy 6, 10.
24. Acts 4, 34,
25. Apol. II, 39.
26. “Summa Theologica”, II-II, O. 61, Art. 1 and 2.
27. St. Thomas, “De regimine principum” I, 15.
28. Genesis 1, 28.
29. Romans 10, 12.
30. Exodus 20, 8.
31. Genesis 2,2.
32. Genesis 3, 19.
33. Ecclesiastes 4, 9-10.
34. Proverbs 18, 19.
35. St. Thomas, “Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem” 2, 8.
36. Ibid.
37. “Human law is law only in virtue of its accordance with right reason: and thus it is manifest that it flows from the eternal law. And in so far as it deviates from right reason it is called an unjust law; in such case it is no law at all, but rather a species of violence.” St. Thomas, “Summa Theologica”, I-II, Q.93, Art. 3 ad 2.
38. St. Matthew 16, 26.
39. St. Matthew 6, 32, 33,
40. 1 Corinthians 13, 4-7.

Transcribed by Paul Halsall

Copyright © 2007 by Kevin Knight (EMAIL). Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.

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Pope Leo XIII as a young priest~~shown when he was assigned and appointed~~Bishop Pecci as Nuncio in Brussels

“Each needs the other: capital cannot do without labor, nor labor without capital.”